Crushed limestone from Pila Spi Formation as alternative for conventional aggregate, Qaradagh area, Kurdistan region - Iraq

Hawkar O. Hama, Hazhar H. Ahmed, Razbar F. Majid and Nyan T. Omer
Ministry of Natural Resources, Directory of Geological Survey and Mineral Investigation-Suleimanyah-Kurdistan


The late Eocene limestone rocks of Pila Spi Formation from Qaradagh area in Sulaimani
Governorate, Kurdistan region (NE of Iraq) have been selected as alternative for
conventional aggregate in concrete. The collected samples from the section are analyzed
chemically and physically. Field investigations in the area were adopted. The laboratory
tests including particle size analysis, los angeles abrasion, specific gravity, water
absorption, soundness and gypsum content had been done for the crushed limestone
aggregates. In addition, twelve concrete cubes in dimension 15cm3
have been molded according to the Iraqi Standards and the compressive strength test was carried out on it.
The aggregate mix design consists of 1.5: 2: 4 with 0.5 water/ cement ratio. The results of
the aggregate are compared with the international standard tests; accordingly, the
Limestone of Pila Spi Formation is acceptable as alternative for natural sand and gravel.

Key Words:
Pila Spi Formation
Crushed limestone
Compressive strength.


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