Speciation of U, Se, As and Sr in Makook Karstic water system, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Omed Mohammed Mustafa
Department of General Sciences, College of Basic Education, Charmo University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq


Abstract

Speciation of trace elements in water system is essential for understanding of the
mobility, toxicity, bioavailability and transport characteristics of these elements. This
study presents an evaluation of different factors affecting speciation of uranium (U),
selenium (Se), arsenic (As) and strontium (Sr) in Makook Karstic water system. Results
show a temporal variability of U, Se, As and Sr species within the different karst
aquifers. The abundant species are U(VI), U(IV), Se(IV), Se(VI), As(V), As(III), Sr2+
and SrHCO3+. It is observed that these species are significantly controlled by pH, redox
(pE), temperature (T), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolution of calcite and
dolomite minerals and variation of springs discharge. Mineralogical content of the host
rocks controls the speciation of the studied elements as well. Therefore, different
aquifers show different speciation responses for the same element. This study illustrates
the speciation mechanism in karstic waters.

Key Words:
Karstic water,
Speciation, Makook
system, DOC,
Kurdistan Region


References

Al Manmi, D., 2008. Water resources management in Rania area, Sulaimaniyah NE-Iraq. Unpublished PhD
dissertation, University of Baghdad.

APHA, 1998. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th Edn. American Public
Health Association, Washington.

Bellen, R., Dunnington, H., Wetzel, R., Morton, D., Dubertret, L., 1959. Stratigraphic lexicon of Iraq.
Elrashidi, A., Adriano, C., Workman, M., Lindsay, L., 1987. Chemical Equilibria of Selenium in Soils. Soil
Science 144 (2), 141–152.

Erőss, A., Mádl-Szőnyi, J., Surbeck, H., Horváth, Á., Goldscheider, N., Csoma, É., 2012. Radionuclides as
natural tracers for the characterization of fluids in regional discharge areas, Buda Thermal Karst, Hungary.
Journal of Hydrology 426-427, 124–137.

Huang, Z., Pei, Q., Sun, G., Zhang, S., Liang, J., Gao, Y., Zhang, X., 2008. Low selenium status affects
arsenic metabolites in an arsenic exposed population with skin lesions. Clinica Chimica Acta 387 (1-2), 139–
144.

Kilchmann, S., Waber, H., Parriaux, A., Bensimon, M., 2004. Natural tracers in recent groundwaters from
different Alpine aquifers. Hydrogeology Journal 12, 643–661.

Koss, V., Kim, I., 1990. Modeling of strontium sorption and speciation in a natural sediment-groundwater
system. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 6 (3), pp. 267–280.

Kumar, R., Riyazuddin, P., 2011. Speciation of selenium in groundwater: Seasonal variations and redox
transformations. Journal of Hazardous Materials 192, 263–269.

Landau, S., Everitt, B., 2004. A handbook of statistical analyses using SPSS. Boca Raton: Chapman &
Hall/CRC.

Lauria, C., Almeida, R., Sracek, O., 2004. Behavior of radium, thorium and uranium in groundwater near the
Buena Lagoon in the Coastal Zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Environmental Geology 47 (1), 11–19.

Mapoma, T., Xie, X., Zhang, L., 2014. Redox control on trace element geochemistry and provenance of
groundwater in fractured basement of Blantyre, Malawi. Journal of African Earth Sciences 100, 335–345.

Masscheleyn, H., Delaune, D., Patrick, H., 1990. Transformations of selenium as affected by sediment
oxidation-reduction potential and pH. Environmenta Science and Technology 24 (1), 91–96.

Mustafa, O., Merkel, B., 2015a. Classification of karst springs based on discharge and water chemistry in
Makook karst system, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Freiberg Online Geoscience, 39, 1–24.

Mustafa, O., Merkel, B., 2015b. Geochemical Evolution and Water – Rock interactions in Makook Karst
Aquifers, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Topical Issues of Rational Use of Natural Resources, April 22-24, 2015,
St. Petersburg, Russia.

Mustafa, O., Merkel, B., Weise, S., 2015. Assessment of Hydrogeochemistry and Environmental Isotopes in
Karst Springs of Makook Anticline, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Hydrology 2, 48–68.

Ravoori, S., Srinivasan, C., Pereg, D., Robertson, W., Ayotte, P., Gupta, C., 2010. Protective effects of
selenium against DNA adduct formation in Inuit environmentally exposed to PCBs. Environment
International 36 (8), 980–986.

Smedley, L., Kinniburgh, G., 2002. A review of the source, behaviour and distribution of arsenic in natural
waters. Applied Geochemistry 17, 517–568.

Stevanović, Z., Iurkiewicz, A., 2004. Geologic-tectonic factors controlling groundwater flow patterns and
discharge of karst aquifers in Western Zagros (Northern Iraq), Proceedings of 33rd IAH Congress & 7th
ALHSUD (CD) Zacatecas.

Stevanović, Z., Iurkiewicz, A., Maran, A., 2009. New insights into karst and caves of Northwestern Zagros
(Northern Iraq). Acta Carsologica 38, 83–96.

Stevanović, Z., Marcovic, M., 2004. Hydrogeology of Northern Iraq. General Hydrogeology and Aquifer
System, vol 2, 1st edn, FAO.