Response of Fressia hybrida plant to spraying with liquid universal fertilizer and Salicylic acid in growth parameters

Jamal Ahmed Abbass, Mushtaq Talib Hammdi AL-Zurfy& Hawraa Kameel Mohmmed
,Faculty of Agriculture – Kufa University – Iraq


An experiment was conducted at the lath house of Agriculture Faculty \Kufa University during the growing seasons of 2015-2016 to study the response of freesia plant to spraying liquid universal fertilizer and salicylic acid on growth parameters. Experiment was adopted a Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) with three replicates in two factors. First three concentration of spraying liquid universal fertilizer i e.(0, 3 and 6)ml.L-1. Second three concentration of Salicylic acid i.e.(0, 40and 80)mg.L-1. Means were compared by using the Least Significant Difference (L.S.D.) test at probability 0.05
Results showed that spraying liquid universal fertilizer at a concentration 6ml.L-1 and Salicylic acid at a concentration of 40mg.L-1 significantly increased the number of leaves per plant, shoot dry weight, number of inflorescence per plant, inflorescence stalk length, diameter of inflorescence stem, number of florets per inflorescence, diameter of florets, floret dry weight to 7.33 leaf.plant-1, 5.15g, 7.33 inflorescence. plant-1, 42.03cm, 5.43mm, 13.33mm,7.93cm and 3.10g respectively, and decrease the number of the days until opening the first flower bud to 140.60days. Spraying liquid universal fertilizer at a concentration of 6ml.L-1 and Salicylic acid at a concentration of 80mg.L-1 significantly increased the content of total chlorophyll and carbohydrates to 41.77mg.100g-1fresh weight and 13.43mg.100g-1 dry weight, , compared to the control treatment which gave the lowest vales (3.66 leaves.plant-1, 2.37g, 3.33inflorescence. plant-1, 30.13cm, 1.60mm, 6.33floret. inflorescence-1 ,3.36cm and 1.08g, 35.11mg.100g-1 fresh weight, 7.50mg.100g-1 dry weight respectively), and increased the days until opening the first flower bud to 169days.

Key Words: Fressia hybrida plant, liquid universal fertilizer, Salicylic acid.


[1]  Al-Batal, N. "Indoor ornamentals plant". Publications of Damascus University- Faculty of Agriculture. Ajlouni Press. Damascus. Syria. pp. 134 – 138. (2005).

 [2] Al- Batal, N. "Protected ornamental plant". Publications of Damascus University. Faculty of Agriculture. Al- Rahoda Press. Damascus. Syria. pp. 41-77. (2010).

 [3] Kannan, S.1980. "Mechanism of foliar uptake of plant nutrients accomplishments and prospects", J. Pl. Nutr., Vol.(2), No.6. pp.717-735.(1980).

 [4] Joly, C. “Mineral fertilizers: Plant Nutrient Content, Formulation and Efficiency, C.F Dudal. R.  and. Roy. R. N. Integrated Plant Nutrition Systems. FAO. Rome. Italy. pp  267-280".(1993).

[5]Brayan, C. 1. "Foliar fertilization". Secrets of Success. "Proc. symposium      Beyond foliar application" 10-14 June, adela Australia Publication University.  Australia. pp.:0-36. (1999).      

[6] Abbass, J. A. Talib, M. and Al-Khalili, F. M. S." Effect of Spraying Nutritional Solution “PRO.SOL” and Chelated Iron on Growth and Flowering of Gazania Plant Gazania splenden L", Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology, Vol.(3),  No.11 , pp 814 – 823. (2016).

[7] Abbass, J. A. Khuzul, Z. H. T. and Al-Zurfi, M. T. H. "Effect spraying Indol Acetic Acid "IAA" and nutrient solution " KomBe'' on growth  parameter of  Snapdragon plants Antirrhimum majus L", Kufa  Journal for Agricultural Sciences, Vol.(8), No.3, pp 51 -61. (2016).

[8] Safana. H. S. "Effect of spraying humic acid on some vegetative and flowering characteristics in Dahlia hybrid plant", J. of Thi-Qar Univ. for Agri. Researches, Vol.(1), No.2. pp 243-255.(2013).

[9] ] Lee, H.I. Leon, J. and Raskin, I. "Biosynthesis and metabolism of Salicylic acid". PNAS, Vol.(92), No. 10. pp. 4076-4079. (1995).

[10] Shakirova, F. M Sakhabutdinova, A. R. Bezrukova, M. V. Fathutdinova, R.A. and Fakhudinova, D. R. "Changes in the hormonal status of wheat seedlings induced by salicylic acid and salinity", Plant Sci., No.164. pp. 317–322.(2003).

[11] Martin-Mex, R. Villanueva-Couoh, E. Uicab-Quijano, V. and  Larqué-Saavedra, A. "Positive effect of salicylic acid on the flowering of gloxinia". Proceedings 31st Annual Meeting. Plant Growth Regulation Society of America. Vancouver, Canada. pp. 149-151. (2003).

[12] Al- Abbasi, A. M. A. S. Abbas, J. Al- Zurfi, M. T. H.. "Effect of spraying thiamin and salicylic acid on growth and flowering of Zinnia elegans L". International Journal of the Bioflux Society, Vol.(7), No.1, pp. 44 – 50. (2015).

[13] Imanishi, H. “Freesia”: The Physiology of flower bulbs, A. De Hertogh and M Le Nard, editors Elsevier. Amsterdam. Netherlands. (1993).

[14] Al- Rawi, K. M and. Khalaf-Alla, A. “Design and Analysis of Agricultural Experiments”, College of Agriculture and Forestry. University of Mousel. Iraq. Pp. 487.

[15] Goodwin, T.W. “Chemistry and biochemistry of plant pigments”, 2nd ed. Academic Press, N.Y.USA. pp. 766. (1976).

[16] Dubois, M. Gilles, K. A. Hamilton, J.K. Rebers, P. A. and Smith, S. "Colorimetric method for determination of Sugars and related substances" . Anal. Chem., Vol.(28), No.3. pp. 350–356.(1956).

[17] Al-Rayes, A. J. “Plant nutrition”: Direction of Plant Nutrition1st ed.. College of Agriculture. University of Baghdad. Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. Iraq. pp. 188. (1987).

 [18] Al-Sahaf, F. H. “Applied plant nutrition”, Dar al-Hikma Press. University of  Baghdad. Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. Iraq. pp 258. (1989).

 [19] Al- Nuaimi, S.A.A. “Fertilizers and soil fertility”, Technical Institutes Establishment. Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. Baghdad. Iraq. pp. 377. (1987).

[20] Chen, Y. Nobili, M. and. Stimulatory, A. T. “Effect of Humic Substances on Plant Growth” : Soil Organic Matter in Sustainable Agriculture. Magdoft F., Ray R.(eds). CRC Press. USA.(2004).   

[21] Molo, J. P.L. and. Oliveira, A. P.. "Garlic production as a function of different water levels and bovine manure is soil". Hort. Gras. No.17. pp. 11- 15.(1999).

 [22] Abdul-Qadar, F. Abdul-Latif, F.  Shawki, A. Abu Tubeakh, A. and Al-Khateeb, G. "Plant Physiology Science". College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mousel. Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research.  Iraq. pp. 391. (1982).

[23] Hayat, S. Ali, B. and Ahmad, A. “Salicylic acid: biosynthesis, metabolism and physiological role in plants”: Salicylic acid: a plant hormone. Hayat S., Ahmad A.(eds), pp. 1-14, Springer, Netherlands. pp. 1 - 14. (2007).

 [24] Zamani S.  Kazemi, M. and  Aran, M. "Post-harvest life of cut rose flowers as affected by salicylic acid and glutamin", World Appl. Sic. J., Vol.(12), No.9. pp. 1621-1624.(2011).  

[25] Al-Dulaymy, H. E. “Effect of magnetized water, spraying with KT-30 (CPPU) on growth and flowering of Calendula officinals and Callistephus chinensis”, Ph.D. thesis. Faculty of Agriculture. University of Kufa. Iraq. pp. 235. (2012).