Effect of Feeding Frequency on Some Growth Performance, Some Carcass Characteristics And Chemical Meat Composition 

Mohammed Mahmood Mohammed1, Hatem Hasson Saleh2 & Ayad Baker Mahmood1

1 Agriculture Science-sulaimani, University, Bakrajo Street, Sulaimaniyah-Iraq.

2 College of Agriculture- kirkuk University, kirkuk-Iraq


This study was conducted on 16 male Karadi lambs, with an average initial body live weight of 27.00±0.10 kg and 4 to 5 months old were used in this experiment. Lambs were randomly allocated to 4 treatments (4 lambs for each treatment). Feeding frequency started following an adaptation period to the end of the experiment which lasted for 60 days at one meal daily (M1: control treatment), two meals daily (M2: two treatment), three meals daily (M3: three treatment), and four meals daily (M4: fourth treatment).All lambs were received an equal daily allowance of concentrate diet (3%of the live body weight). Straw was given ad libitum. Results showed that lambs fed 4 meals daily had significantly (P≤0.05) higher live body weight (40.80kg) as compared with fed once, twice and thrice daily at the end of the experimental period. Lambs fed on 2 or 4 meals daily consumed significantly (P≤0.05) more feed daily than those fed on once or thrice meals daily. Also, average daily gain(0.217kg), hot carcass weight (20.05kg) and chilled carcass weight (19.89kg) was significantly (P≤0.05) higher for lambs fed on 4 times a day as compared to lambs fed once, twice and thrice daily. Lambs fed 4 times daily had significantly (P≤0.05) higher the dressing percentage 1 (49.14%) and 2 (53.83%), as compared with lambs fed once (46.41 vs 52.10%), twice (47.69 vs 52.80%) and 3 meals daily (46.50vs 52.05%). Results indicated that lambs fed on 4 meals daily had significantly (P≤0.05)  larger rib-eye muscle area (17.90cm2) as compared with lambs fed once, twice and thrice daily. Lambs fed 4 meals daily had significantly (P≤0.05) thinner fat over longissimusdorsi muscle and deposit lower percentage as internal fats than those fed less feeding frequency. Lambs fed 4 meals daily had significantly (P≤0.05)  higher percentage of lean (57.55%)in their carcasses as compared with the percentage of  lean (55.37%)in lambs fed once daily (control).

 Key Words: Feeding Frequency, Karadi lambs, Carcass Characteristics, chemical composition.


[1] Kioumarsi, H.; Khorshidi, K. J. ; Zahedifar M.; A. Seidavi, R.; Mirhosseini, S. Z. and Taherzadeh,  M. R. "The effect of dietary energy and protein level on performance, efficiency and carcass characteristics of Taleshi lambs", Asian Journal Animal Veterinary  Advances, Vol.(3), pp.307-313. (2008).

[2] Keskin, M.; Şahin,  A.;  Biçer, O. and Gül, S. "Comparison of the behaviour of Awassi lambs in cafeteria feeding system with single diet feeding system", Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Vol.(85), No.1, pp.57-64. (2004).

[3] Robles, V.; González, L. A.; Ferret, A.; Manteca, X. and Calsamiglia, S. "Effects of feeding frequency on intake, ruminal fermentation, and feeding behavior in heifers fed high-concentrate diets", Journal of Animal Science, Vol.(85), No.10, pp.2538-2547. (2007).

[4] Jones, R. J. and Megarrity, R. G. "Comparative toxicity responses of goats fed on Leucaena leucocephala in Australia and Hawaii", Crop and Pasture Science, Vol.(34), No.6, pp.781-790. (1983).

[5]  AOAC. Official method of Analysis of the Association of official Analytical chemists”, 15th Ed., Washington. USA. (2004).

[6]  Folch, J.; Lees, M. and Sloane-Stanley, G. H. "A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues". Journal of Biological chemist, Vol. (226), No.1, pp.497-509. (1957).

[7]  XLSTAT. Addinsoft. Pro version 7.5.3”, (2004). http: // WWW. Xlstat.com/en/ho.

[8]  Duncan, D. B. "Multiple range and multiple F tests", Biometrics, Vol.(11), No.1, pp.1-42. (1955).

[9]  Özen, N. Animal Nutritional Physiology and Metabolism, Akdeniz University Agriculture Faculty Lecture Notes, Antalya, Turkey. 343 pp. (1995). (in Turkish).

[10]  Demirören, E. Hayvan davranışları”, Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları, 547. (2002).

[11]  Shabi, Z.; Bruckental, I.; Zamwell, S.; Tagari, H. and  Arieli, A. "Effects of extrusion of grain and feeding frequency on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and milk yield and composition in dairy cows", Journal of dairy science, Vol. (82), No.6, pp.1252-1260. (1999).

[12] Keskin, M.; Gül, S.; Sahin, A.; Kaya, S.; Duru, M.; Görgülü, Ö.; and Biçer, S. "Effects of feed refreshing frequency on growth and carcass characteristics of Awassi lambs", South African Journal of Animal Science, Vol.(37), No.4, pp.248-255. (2007).

[13]  Schutz, J. S.; Wagner, J. J.; Sharman, E. D.; Davis, N. E. and Engle, T. E. "Effect of feeding frequency on feedlot steer performance", The Professional Animal Scientist, Vol.(27), No.1, pp. 14-18. (2011).

[14]  Abouheif, M. A.; Al-Saiady, M. Y.; Makkawi, A. A.; Ibrahim, H. A. and Kraidees, M.S. "Effect of either once or twice daily feeding of pelleted high-concentrate diet on performance and digestion in growing lambs",  Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, Vol.(9), No.5, pp. 925-931. (2010).

[15]  Towhidi, A.; Zali, A. ; Khoshsokhan, A.; Khazali, H.; Zhandi, M.; Rezayazdi, K. and Gholami, H. "The effect of feeding frequency on the hormonal profile, carcass characteristics, and feedlot performance in Iranian Holstein calves", Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Vol.(34), No.2, pp.137-142. (2010).

 [16]  Kempster, A.J.; Croston, D. and Jones, D.W. "Tissue growth and development in crossbred lambs sired by ten breeds", Livestock Production Science, Vol.(16), No.2, pp.145-162. (1987).

[17]  Santos, V.; Azevedo, J. and Silva, S. "Relative growth of body and carcass components of male Ile-de-France lambs", Review Portug Zootéc, Vol.(7), No.1, pp. 29-41. (2000).

 [18]  Foster, D.W. and McGarry, J.D. Glucose, Lipid and Protein Metabolism”, Text Book of Endocrine Physiology, Griffin, J.E, and S.R, Ojeda (Eds.). Oxford University Press, pp: 393-419. (2000).

[19]  Houseknecht, K. L.; Baile, C. A.; Matteri, R. L. and Spurlock, M. E. "The biology of leptin: a review", Journal of Animal Science, Vol.(76), No.5, pp.1405-1420. (1998).

[20] Frühbeck, G.; Aguado, M.; Gómez-Ambrosi, J.and Martı́, J. A. "Lipolytic Effect ofin VivoLeptin Administration on Adipocytes of Lean andob/obMice, but Notdb/dbMice", Biochemical and biophysical research communications, Vol.(250), No.1, pp.99-102. (1998).

[21]  Cecava, M. J.; Merchen, N. R. ; Berger, L. L. and Nelson, D. R. "Effect of energy level and feeding frequency on site of digestion and postruminal nutrient flows in steers", Journal of dairy science, Vol.(73), No.9, pp.2470-2479. (1990).

[22] Theriez, M.; Tissier,  M. and Robelin, J. "The chemical composition of the intensively fed lamb", Animal production, Vol.(32), No.01, pp.29-37. (1981).