jzs-10657

Soil Cracking Depth as Influenced By Soil Physical Properties

Mohammed A.  Fattah1  Shadan H. Khurshid1 & Rebaz A. Ahmad1                        

1 Department of Soil and Water Science, College of Agricultural, University of Sulaimani, Iraq.



Abstract

Knowledge of the tendency of soils to change volume as moisture content changes and regional distribution of expansive soils are of great importance. Therefore it is expected that they exhibit soil cracks. To achieve this fact, bulk soil samples were collected from the surface layer (0.00– 0.30m) of five locations that are distributed throughout the Sulaimani governorate and its surrounding. Standard procedures were applied to perform physical, chemical and geotechnical properties of the investigated soils. The effect of five soil types and four levels of normal bulk density (100, 107, 114, and 121%) on soil crack depth was analyzed by complete randomized design. 40 metal pots each with a diameter of 25cm and 23cm in height were used to carry out this study at six periods of time. The average depth of crack at several random points along the length of the cracks was measured by inserting a 2mm steel rod. Relationships among soil cracks depth with the clay content, organic matter, and liquid limit at all levels of bulk density were positive, while it was negative with sand content. Stronger correlations for all studied properties were obtained in the highest state of bulk density. As bulk density increased the difference of cracks depth decreased; when bulk density increased from 100% to 121% of the normal the soil cracks depth decreases by 28.5%. This results in clay content, sand content, liquid limits, and organic matter to have less effect on crack depth at 121% of normal state of bulk density.    

  Key Words: Soil crack,Bulk density,Moisture.




References:

[1] Dinka T.M. and Lascano, R.J., “A Technical Note: Orientation of Cracks and Hydrology in a Shrink-Swell Soil”, Open Journal of Soil Science, 2, 91-94, (2012).

[2] Anderson M.G., Hubbard M.G., and Kneale P.E., “The influence of shrinkage cracks on pore pressure within a clay embankment”, Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology London 15: 9–14, (1982).

[3] Bronswijk J.J.B., Hamminga W., and Oostindae K., “Field scale solute transport in a heavy clay soil”, Water Resources Research 31: 517–526, (1995).

[4] Kelly B.P., and Pomes M.L., “Preferential flow and transport of nitrate and bromide in a claypan soil”, Ground water 36(3): 484–494, (1998).

[5] Mohanty, M., Bandyopadhyay, K.K., Painuli, D.K., Ghosh, P.K., Misra, A.K. and Hati, K.M., “Water transmission characteristics of a vertisol and water use efficiency of rainfed soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Under sub soiling and manuring”, Indian institute of soil sci. Indian council of agricultural res., Nabibagh, Berasia road, Bhopal 462038, MP, India, (2006).

[6] Arnold, J.G., Potter, K.N., King, K.W., and Allen, P.M., “Estimation of Soil Cracking and the Effect on Surface Runoff in a Texas Blackland Prairie Watershed”, Hydrological Processes, Vol. 19, No.3, pp. 589603. doi:10.1002/hyp.5609, (2005).

[7] Bandyopadhyay, K.K., Mohanty,  M.,  Painuli, D.K.,  Misra, A.K., Hati,  K.M., Mandal, K.G., Ghosh, P.K., Chaudhary, R.S. and Acharya, C.L., “Influence of Tillage Practices and Nutrient Management on Crack Parameters in a Vertisol of Central India”, Soil Tillage Research, Vol. 71, No. 2, pp. 133-142 (2003).

[8] Alvis, A. and Marcelo, S., “Analysis of Cracking Behavior of Drying Soil”, 2nd International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology”, IPCBEE, 6, 66-69, IACSIT Press, Singapore, (2011).

[9] Stirling, R.A., Davie, C.T., and Glendinning, S., “Numerical modelling of desiccation crack induced permeability”, 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 813-816, Paris, (2013).

[10] Mitchell, J.K., “Fundamentals of Soil Behavior”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, (1993).

[11] Al Wahab, R.M. and El-Kedrah, M.A., “Using Fibers to Reduce Tension Cracks and Shrink/Swell in Compacted Clay”, Geoenvironment 2000, Y.B. Acar and D.E. Daniel, Eds., ASCE, New York, N.Y., 791805, (1995).

[12] Albrecht, B.A., and Benson C.H., “Effect of Desiccation on Compacted Clays”, J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., ASCE 127(1), 67-75, (2001).

[13] Nahlawi, H. and Kodikara, J.K., “Laboratory experiments on desiccation cracking of thin soil layers”, Geotech. Geol. Eng., 24, 1641–1664, (2006).

[14] Omer, M.E.T., and Mohd, R.T., “Cracks in Soils Related to Desiccation and Treatment”, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 1080-1089, Malaysia, (2011).

[15] Reeve, M.J., Hall, D.G.M., and Bullock, P., “The effect of soil composition and environmental factors on the shrinkage of some clayey British soils”, European J. of soil sci. Vol. 31, Issue 3: 429-442, (2006).

[16] Karim, T.H., and Khalid, A.S., “Survey on different soil properties in northern Iraq”, (2000).

[17] Gray, C.W. and Allbrook, R., “A relationship between shrinkage induces and soil properties in some New Zealand soils”, Geoderma, Vol. 108, Issues 3-4, Augast, 2000: 287-299, (2002).

[18] Reeve, M.J., Hall, D.G.M., and Bullock, P., “The effect of soil composition and environmental factors on the shrinkage of some clayey British soils”, Soil Sci.J. No.31: 429-442, (1980).

[19] Tang, Ch., Bin, Sh., Liu, Ch., Zhao, L., and Wang, B., “Influencing factors of geometrical structure of surface shrinkage cracks in clayey soils”, Engineering geology, Vo. 101, Issues 3-4, 17 October, 2008: 204217, (2007).

[20] Franzmeier, D.P., and Ross, S.J., “Soil swelling laboratories measurement and relation to other properties”, Soil Sci.J., No. 32: 573-577, (1968).

[21] Mesfin, K., “Relationship between Consolidation and Swelling Characteristics of Expansive Soils of Addis Ababa”, M.Sc. thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, (2005).

[22] Navar, J.J., Mendez, R., Bryan, B., and Kuhn, N.J., “The contribution of shrinkage cracks to bypass flow during simulated and natural rainfall experiments in northeastern Mexico”, Canadian J. of soil science, (2001).

[23] Huawang, S., “Application of Unascertained Measure to Classification of Expansive Soils”, International Colloquium on Computing, Communication, Control, and Management, ISECS, 57-60, China, (2009).

[24] Maulood. Y. I., “Control of Cracks due to Drying Shrinkage of an Expansive Soil Using Different Drying Mechanisms and Filler Additive”, Zanco Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. pp. (31-40) Vol.27, No.1, (2015).

[25] Daniel, D., and Wu, Y.K., “Compacted clay liners and covers for arid sites.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, Vo. 119, No. 2, pp. 223-237, (1993).

[26] Dudal, R., and Eswaran, H., “Distribution, Properties, and Classification of Vertisols”,  In: L.P. Wilding and R. Puentes, Eds., Publication Soil Management Support Services, US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington DC, pp. 1-22, (1988). 

[27] Smiles, D., and Raats, P.A.C., “Hydrology of Swelling Clay Soils”, In: M.G. Anderson, Ed., Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences, Wiley, Chichester, Chapter 67, pp. 1011-1026, (2005).

[28] McCormack, D.E. and Wilding, L.P., “Soil properties influencing swelling in canfield and Geeburg soils”, Soil. Sci. Soc. Am.  Proc., J., Vol. 39: 496 – 502, (1975).

[29] Khurshid, Sh.H., “Characterization of cracked soils and strategies for their management in Sulaimani governorate”, PhD dissertation, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, (2010).

[30] Kleppe, J., and Olson, R., “Desiccation cracking of soil barriers”, Hydraulic Barriers in Soil and Rock, STP 874, ASTM, Philadelphia, 263–275, (1985).

[31] Rozalina, S.D.,  and Yanful, E.K., “Factors affecting the shear strength of mine tailings/clay mixtures with varying clay content and clay mineralogy”, Engineering Geology, Volume 125,11-25, (2012).

[32] Akayuli, C., Bernard Ofosu, Seth O., Nyako, and Kwabena O., Opuni, “International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications”, (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 4, Jul-Aug, pp.38-42, (2013).

[33] Cheen F.H., “Foundations on expansive soils. Amsterdam”, Elsevier. ISBN 978-0444430366 pp. 456-463, (1988). 

[34] Chaosheng Tang, Yu-Jun Cui, Bin Shi, Anh Minh Tang, Chun Liu, “Desiccation and cracking behaviour of clay layer from slurry state under wetting-drying cycles”, Geoderma, Elsevier, 166, pp.111-118, (2011).

[35] Boyle, M., Frankenberger, W.T. Jr., and Stolzy, L.H., “The influence of organic matter on soil affregation and water infiltration”, J. Prod. Agric. 2, 290-299, (1989).

[36] Shah, A.N., Tanveer, M., Shahzad, B., Yang, G., Fahad, S., Ali, S., Bukhari, M.A., Tung, S.A., Hafeez, A. and Souliyanonh, B., “Soil compaction effects on soil health and cropproductivity: an overview”. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, pp.1-12. (2017).

[37] Alakukku, “laura Soil compaction. In: Jakobsson, Christine: ecosystem health and sustainable agriculture 1: sustainable agriculture”, Uppsala university. URL:   www.balticuniv.uu.se/index.php/component/docman/doc_dowload/1256-chpter-28-soil-copmaction (accessed November 14th  2014), (2012).

[38] Alakkuku, L., Weisskopf,  P., Chamen, W.C.T., Tijink,  F.G.J., Van der Linden, J.P., Pires, S., Sommer, C., and Spoor, G., “Prevention strategies for field traffic-induced subsoil compaction: a review. Part 1”, Machine/soil interactions. Soil Till Res 73:145–160, (2003).

[39] Whalley, W.R., Dumitru, E., and Dexter, A.R., “Biological effects of soil compaction”, Soil Tillage Res., 35:53–68, (1995).

[40] Chang, R.K., and Warkentin, B.P., “Volume change of compacted clay soil aggregates”, Soil. Sci. J., Vol. 165.No.2:106-111, (1966).