Effect of Fertilizer Types and Plant Densities on Oil Components of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L.) Under Rainfed and Irrigated Conditions

Rozhgar Mustafa Ahmed1, Ali Abdulrahman Askari2 & Shirwan Omer Baban3

1Ph.D. in Medicinal Plant Production, 3Ph.D. in Medicinal Plants, 2Ph.D. in Chemistry

1Crop Science Department - College of Agricultural Sciences - University of Sulaimani - Sulaimani – Iraqi Kurdistan Region,       2Retired, 3College of Education, Salahaddin University- Irbil- Iraq Kurdistan Region,


The present study was conducted at Bazian location during two winter seasons of 2010- 2011 and 2011- 2012 A factorial experiment was conducted using Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) with three replications. The study included two different irrigation; Rainfed and Irrigated, combined with three fertilization applications; No fertilization Chemical fertilization and Organic fertilization and two different plant densities; 8and 16 plant m-2The most important results of the average of both seasons can be summarized as follows:-

Seed samples were analyzed quantitatively by HPLC for their content of unsaturated fatty acids; α-Linolenic, Linoleic, Oleic and Gadoleic acid. Data showed that effect of irrigation treatment was significant in the amount of Linoleic and Oleic acids, while Gadoleic showed significant differences due to no fertilizer treatment. α-Linolenic respond significantly to the interaction between chemical fertilizer and 8 plant m-2

  Key Words: Medicinal Plant, Milk thistle, Fertilization, Irrigation, Plant density, Unsaturated fatty acids.


 [1] Joy, P. P., J. Thomas, S. Mathew and B. P. Skaria, Medicinal Plants. Kerala Agricultural University. Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research Station, 4-6 (1998).

[2] Andrzejewska, J., K. Sadowska and S. Mielcarek, (Effect of Sowing date and rate on the yield and flavonolignans content of the fruits of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.) grow on light soil in a moderate climate. Industrial Crops and Products, (33): 462-468 (2011).

[3] Carrier, D. J., T. Crowe, S. Sokhansanj, J. Wahab and B. Barl, (Milk thistle, Silybum marianum L. Gaertn., flower head development and associated marker compound profile. Journal of Herbs Spices Medicinal Plants, (10): 65-74 (2002).

[4] Mckee, T. and R. M. James, Biochemistry the Molecular Basis of Life. 3rd edition, Mc Grow Hill, North America (2003).

[5] Basiglio C.  L., E. J. Pozzi, D. A. Mottino and G. R. Marcelo, Differential effects of silymarin and its active component silibinin on plasma membrane stability and hepatocellular lysis. Chemico-Biological Interactions, (179): 297-303 (2009).

[6] Hadolin, M., M. Skerget, Z. Knez and D. Bauman, High pressure extraction of vitamin E-rich oil from Silybum marianum. Food Chemistry, (74): 355-64 (2001).

[7] El-Mallah, M. H., S. M. El-Shami and M. M. Hassanein, Detailed studies on some lipids of Silybum marianum (L.) seed oil. Grasasy Aceites, (54):397-402 (2003).

[8] Trease, G. E. and W. C. Evans, Pharmacognosy .15th ed. Springer. UK. (1):3-10 (2002).

[9] Marwat Khan, B. and A. kh. Muhammad, Climatic Variation and Growth of Holy Thistle (Silybum Marianum Gaertn. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 39(2): 319-327 (2007).

[10] Malekzadeh, M., S. I. Mirmazloum, H. R. Anguorani, S. N. Mortazavi and M. Panahi, The physicochemical properties and oil constituents of milk thistle (Silybum marianum Gaertn. cv. Budakalászi) under drought stress. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Vol. 5 (8): 1485-1488 (2011).

[11] Ferreira-Dias, Suzana, D. G. Valente and J. M. F. Abreu. Comparison between ethanol and hexane for oil extraction from Quercus suber L. fruits. Grasasy Aceites, Vol. 54 (4): 378-383 (2003).

[12] Al-Jubouri, I. I., Effect of sowing dates and harvesting on the quality of oil and its component for two types of sesame crop (Sesamum indicum). Ph.D thesis. College of agriculture. Baghdad University (1997).

[13] Kvasnicka, F., B. Bıba, R. Sevcık, M. Voldrich and J. Kratka, Analysis of the active components of silymarin. Journal of Chromatography A990: 239-245 (2003).

[14] Al–Rawi, khashh mahmood and Khalafallah, Abdul Aziz Mohammed, Agriculture Experimental  Design    and Analysis. Ministry of Higher Education. College of Agriculture and Forestry. Musul University (1980).

[15] Mohsennia, O. and J. Jalal, Response of safflower Seed quality characteristics to different soil fertility systems and irrigation disruption. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, Vol., 3 (5), 968-976 (2012).