jzs-10659

Subsurface Water Retention Technology (SWRT) for Water Saving and Growing Tomato in Iraqi Sandy Soils

Mahdi Ibrahim Aoda1     Alaa Salih Ati1      Shatha Salim AL-Rawi2   Alvin J. M. Smucker3

1Department of Soil Science and Water Resources-College of Agriculture/ Baghdad University

2Center studies and Engineering designs-Ministry of Water Resources

3Michigan State Universities, East Lansing, MI, USA



Abstract

A study was carried out to assess the impact of using SWRT on irrigation water use efficiency IWUE and yields of tomato crop. Experiments were performed by planting tomato in greenhouses during the spring season of 2014 at two locations in Iraq. One location was at north of Baghdad (latitude 33 38' 58.44" north and longitude 44 24' 17.74"east) at Jaded at Al-Shat, Diyala Province. The other location was at Najaf Province (latitude 32 07' 37.80" north and longitude 44 19' 44.74" east). Soils of the both locations are classified as sandy loam in texture. Four treatments (SWRT, organic matter, tillage and no–tillage farming) were used to represent different tillage practices in studied locations. The experimental design was randomized complete blocked design RCBD with four replications. Irrigation scheduling was performed according to soil moisture content as 50-55% of available water was depleted then irrigation water was added from subsurface drip system to bring soil moisture content back to field capacity. Soil sensors 5TE and GS3 from the Decagon Devices, USA were used to measure volumetric water content hourly. Water balance equation was used to determine the actual water consumption during each stage of plant growth for the whole season. The results showed that the amount of irrigation water and plant yield varied with treatment. Average tomato yield per plant were 3.53, 3.28, 3.26 and 3.06 kg for Diyala location and 3.03, 2.49, 2.37 and 2.05 kg for Najaf location for treatments SWRT, organic matter, no–tillage and tillage treatments, respectively. Depths of irrigation water for season were 307, 486, 502 and 502 mm for Diyala location and 259, 433, 449 and 449 mm for Najaf location for treatments SWRT, organic matter, no – tillage and tillage treatments, respectively. Values of IWUE for tomato at Diyala location were 7.54, 4.54, 4.36 and 4.09 kg m-3 for SWRT, organic matter, tillage and no – tillage treatments, respectively. This shows that SWRT is higher in IWUE by 70, 89 and 77% than organic matter, tillage and no – tillage treatments, respectively. Similar trend of IWUE values for tomato in Najaf was obtained which were 7.78, 3.72, 3.55 and 3.07 kg m-3 for SWRT, organic matter, tillage and no–tillage treatments, respectively, as an increase of SWRT by 112, 156 and 122% over organic matter, tillage and no – tillage treatments, respectively.

  Key Words: Subsurface water retention technology; Tomato; Iraqi sandy soils




References:

 [1] Mckenna, T. “Feed the future deputy coor­dinator for development’’, Report before the senate foreign relations international devel­opment subcommittee. November 28, 2012. http://www.usaid.gov/news-information/ congressional-testimony/testimony-tjada-mck­enna-feed-future-deputy-coordinator.(2012).

 [2] Clay, J. “World Agriculture and the Environment’’: A Commodity-by-Commodity Guide to Impacts and Practices. Chicago: Island Press.(2004)

 [3] Kavdir, Y., Zhang, W. Basso, B. and Sumcker, A. J. "Development of a new soil water retention technology for increasing production and water conservation'', J. Soil and Water Conservation, Vol.(69), No.5, pp.154-160. (2014).

 [4] Guber, A., Alvin, K., Smucker, A.J.M. Berhanu, S. and Miller, M. L. "Optimizing water regime for sustainable corn production on coarse textured soils by subsurface water retaining membranes within plant root zone". Vadose  Zone J., Vol.(2) No.3. (2015).

 [5] Smucker, A. J. M.; W. Wang; A. N. Kravchenko and W.A. Dick.  Forms and Functions of Meso and Micro-niches for Carbon within Soil Aggregates. Journal of Nematology. Vol.(42), pp.84 -86. (2010).

[6] Smucker, A.J.M., Thelen, K.D. and Ngouajio. M. “ A new soil water retention technology that doubled corn production during the 2012 drought’’: Annual Meeting of the International Soil Science Society of America, Tampa, Florida. https://scisoc.confex.com/crops/2013am/webprogram/Paper80350.htm. (2012).

[7] Smucker, A. J. M., Guber, A. K. and. Aoda, M. I. “Enhancing the soil water characteristic curve to feed the world’’: Oral report to the SSSA annual conference, Long Beach, CA. (2014a).

 [8] Smucker, A. J. M. “Improved water policies and new technology will promote greater food and cellulosic biomass production and reduce competition for water’’: food safety, security and defense: focus on food and water. Institute on Science for Global Policy. Pp: 60-68. (2014).

 [9] Guber, A. K., Smucker, A. J. M. and Berhanu. S. “Improving irrigation efficiency of sandy soils by subsurface water retention technology’’, Poster presentation, EGU conference, Vienna, Austria. (2014).

 [10] Smucker, A. J. M., Thelen, K. D. Basso, B. Guber, A. K. Massri, Z. Gong, N. and Auras. R. “Subsurface water retention technology (SWRT) membranes for crop improvement on coarse textured soils’’: Invited keynote oral presentation at the ASA annual conference, Long Beach, CA. (2014b).

[11] Smucker, A. J. M. and Basso, B. ”Global poten­tial for a new subsurface water retention technology- converting marginal soil into sus­tainable plant production’’: The Soil Underfoot: Infinite Possibilities for a Finite Resource, G.J. Churchman, ed., 315–324. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. (2014c).

[12] Black, C. A.. “Physical & mineralogical properties’’: Methods of soil analysis ASA. Medison. Wisc. USA. (1965).

 [13] Page, A. L., Miller, R. H. and Keeney, D. R. “Soil analysis Part 2 chemical and microbiological properties’’, ASA, SSSA .Madison, Wisconsin, USA. (1982).

[14] Kafkafi, U. and Tarchitzky, J. “Fertigation A Tool for Efficient Fertilizer and Water Management’’: International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA) International Potash Institute (IPI) Paris, France, (2011).