Effect of irrigation methods, nitrogen and calcium spray on physical and chemical characteristics of watermelon “Top yield” var. (Citrullus lanatus) in Sulaimani Governorate

Ayub Karim Malmood & Samal Jalal Omar

College of Agricultural science- University of Sulaimani


This study was carried out at Kanipanka Research Station / Sulaymani during growing season of 2015 to study the effect of irrigation method, nitrogen and calcium spraying and their interaction on chemical and physical characteristics of watermelon plant ("Top yield" var.).The study included surface and drip irrigation spraying nitrogen as three concentrations (0, 200 and 400 mg N l-1) using urea fertilizer and spraying calcium (0, 100, 300, 600 mg Ca l-1) concentrations using CaCl2. The experiment was conducted as factorial experimental (2 x 3 with (3) replication. The study's characters were some physical and chemical characters. The results showed that surface (furrow) irrigation was significant in dry matter % (4.17 %) and Ca (0.92 %). N2 (400 mg l-1) was significant in dry matter (4.36 %) and N (0.18%) . While Ca3             (600 ml l-1) was superior in dry matter (4.95 %), Ca (1.21 %), fruit size (3.73 L) and rind thickness (0.92 cm). The interactions of irrigation methods, nitrogen and calcium were significantly affected on some characters. (S x N2 x Ca3) was superior in dry matter% (5.26 %), sucrose % (3.510 %), pH value (5.90) and rind thickness (1.06 cm).

  Key WordsWater melon, Irrigation method, Calcium, Nitrogen, Physical and Chemical propertie


[1] Koocheki, A., Razavi, S. M. A., Milani, E., Moghadan, T. M., Abedini, M., Alamatiyan, S. and Izadikhah, S.  "Physical Properties of Watermelon Seed as a Function of Moisture Content and Variety". InternationalAgrophysics, Vol.(21), pp.349-359.(2007).

[2] Gichimu, B . M.,  Owuor,B.O. and  Dida, M.M.  "Yield of three commercial watermelon cultivars in Kenya as compared to a local Landrace"Afr. J. Hort. Sci., Vol.(3), pp.24-33.(2010).

[3] Zohary, D. and Hopf, M.  “Domestication of plants in the old world. 3rd edition.” Oxford University press. USA. Pp.193-195. (2000).

[4] Amin, M., Ullah, S., Rehman, S., Ullah, Z. and Amir, M. "Comparison of different types of watermelon for their importance nutrients". Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, Vol.(4), No. 14, pp. 59-66.(2014).

[5] Sabo, M. U.,Wailare, M. A., Aliyn, M., Jari, S . and Shuaibu, Y. M.  Effect of NPK fertilizer and spacing on growth and yield of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) in Kaltungo Local Government area of Gombe State, Nigeria. Scholarly Journal of  Agricultural Science. Vol.(3), No.8, pp.325-330.(2013).

[6] Rolbiecki, R., Rolbiecki, S. and Senyigit, U.  "Comparison of watermelon yields under conditions of drip irrigation connected with nitrogen fertigation in vicinities of Bydgoszcz (poland) and Cukurova (Turkey)". Infrastructure and Ecology of Rural Areas, Vol.(12), pp.127-134.(2011).

[7] Goreta, S., Perica, S., Dumicic, G., Bucan, L and Zanic, K..  "Growth and yield of watermelon on polyethylene mulch with different spacing sand nitrogen rates". HortScience, Vol.(40), No.2, pp.366-369.(2005).

[8] Easterwood, G. W. ‘Calcium's role in plant nutrition”. Fluid Journal online winter, pp.1-3. (2002).

[9] Parisi, M., Giordano, Pentangelo, A., D'Onofrio, B,  and Villari, G. "Effects of different levels of nitrogen fertilization on yield and fruit quality in processing tomato". Acta Horticulture. Vol.(700), pp. 129-132.(2006).

[10] Rolbiecki, R., Rolbiecki , S., and Piszczek, P. Influence of sprinkling irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on malting Barley yielding on light soils. Polska Akademia Nauk. Vol.(3),pp. 79-90.(2009).

[11] Audi, W., Aguyoh, J. N. and Gao-Qion, L. "Yield and quality of watermelon as affected by organic and inorganic nitrogen sources". Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences. Vol (1), pp. 180-189.(2013).

[12] Fuentes, C., Enciso, J. Nelson, S., Anciso, J. and Setamou, M.  "Comparing water use efficiency in South Texas furrow and drip irrigated watermelon". RGRWA. pp.1-11.(2014).

[13] Maluki, M., Gesimba, R. M. and Ogweno, J. O.  "Evaluation of interaction of nitrogen and  phosphorous on yield and quality of watermelon ( Citullus lanatus Thumb) {matsuara and Nakai}". I. J. S. N .Vol.(6), No. 2, pp.188-194.(2015).

[14] Al-Jubouri, K. A. A. and Al-Hssani, M. H. A.  "Effect of nitrogen and calcium on quality and percentage infection with blossom-end rot of watermelon fruit". Agri. Sci., Vol.(2), No.4, pp. 189-202. (2010).

[15] Rubio, J. S., Garcia-Sanchez, F., Flores, P., Navarro, J. M. and Martinez, V.  "Yield and fruit quality of sweet pepper in response to fertilization with  Ca+ and K+" . Spanish Journal of Agricultureal Research, Vol.(8), No. 1, pp. 170-177. (2010).

[16] Epsteine, E. and Bloom, A. J.  Mineral nutrition of plants”: principles and perspectives 2nd, Sinauer Associates, Inc, Sunderland, MA, USA. C.F.(2005).

[17] Ali, A. A., Ikeda, M. and Yamda, Y.  "Effects of supply  K, Ca and Mg on the absorption and assimilation of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen in tomato plants". Soil Sci Plant Nutr., Vol.(37), No.2, pp. 283-289.(1991).

[18] Fenn, L. B., Taylor, R. M and Burks, G. M. " Calcium stimulation of ammonium absorption and growth by beet". Agron. Vol.(86), pp. 916-920.(1994).

[19] Dohuki, M. S. S. M  “Evaluation of some wells and springs water in Dohuk governorate for irrigation and drinking purpose”. MSc. Thesis. Coll. of Agri., University of Salahaddin. Iraq.(1997).

[20] Al-Obadi, H. S. H.  “Effect of Gibberellin, Cycocel, Potassium nitrate, Verbalization and sowing date on yield of curds and seeds of cauliflower”. Ph. D. Thesis. (in Arabic).(1999).

[21] Hanson, J. B.  “The functions of calcium in plant nutrition, pp. 149-207. In: P. B. Tinker and Andre Lauchli (eds)”. Advances in plant nutrition.Praeger Publishers, New York, New York.(1984).

[22] Waters, W. E. and Nettles , V. F." The influence of hydrated lime and nitrogen on the yield, quality and chemical composition of the Charleston Gray watermelon". Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci, Vol. (77),              pp.503-507.(1961).