Determination of  toxic, trace and minor elements content in local Kurdish yoghurt samples

Kocher Jamal  Ibrahim1 , Shaimaa Ahmed Qaisar2 , Jasim Mohammed  Salah Al-Saadi3 


1 Food Science Department, Technical College of Applied Sciences, Halabja, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
2 Chemistry Department,College of Education , University of Garmian , 
Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
3 Dairy Science and Technology Department, College of Food Sciences , AL-Qasim Green University, Babil, Iraq

Original: 30/11/2017, Revised: 07/01/2018, Accepted: 06/02/2018, Published online:


The concentrations of toxic , minor and trace elements in local Kurdish yoghurt samples collected  from   different  markets in Halabja governorate ,Kurdistan region ,Iraq were determined in this study. Results indicated that Aluminum (Al), Titanium (Ti) and  Lead (Pb) have the highest concentration among other  toxic trace elements in yoghurt samples. The concentration of these elements were 523.34 - 106.1, 438 - 325 and   4.36 – 0.4 µg kg-1 for Al, Ti and Pb respectively. Concentrations of  trace elements  Be, V, Li, Cs and Co in local yoghurt samples  were  16.63 – 2.32 , 1.33 - 0.02, 11.71 - 0.83 ,13.3 - 0.18 and   zero  µg kg-1 respectively . Zinc had the highest value among other miner elements in yoghurt samples .Zn concentration found in local yoghurt was between  5807.99 – 20945.1 μg.kg-1.

  Key Words: Yoghurt, Minor elements, Toxic elements , Trace elements


[1]  McGee, H. On Food and Cooking: The science of Lore of the Kitchen. New York: Simon&Schuster (2004).

[2]  Tamime, A. Y., and R. K. Robinson. Yogurt Science and Technology. Pergamon Press, New York, NY (1985).

[3]  Clark, S., Jung, S. and Lamsal, B. Food Processing: Principles and Applications, 2Edition.  John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (2014).

[4]  McSweeney, P. L., & Fox, P. F. Advanced dairy chemistry: volume 3: lactose, water, salts and minor constituents(Vol. 3). Springer Science & Business Media(2009).

[5]  Bizzi, C. A., Flores, E. M., Barin, J. S., Garcia, E. E., & Nóbrega, J. A. Understanding the process of microwave-assisted digestion combining diluted nitric acid and oxygen as auxiliary reagent. Microchemical Journal, 99(2), 193-196(2011).

[6] Khan, N., Jeong, I. S., Hwang, I. M., Kim, J. S., Choi, S. H., Nho, E. Y.,& Kim, K. S. Analysis of minor and trace elements in milk and yogurts by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).  Food Chemistry, 147, 220-224 (2014).

[7]  Llorent-Martínez, E. J., De Córdova, M. F., Ruiz-Medina, A., & Ortega-Barrales, P. Analysis of 20 trace and minor elements in soy and dairy yogurts by ICP-MS. Microchemical Journal, 102, 23-27(2012).

[8]  Rezaei, M., Dastjerdi, H. A., Jafari, H., Farahi, A., Shahabi, A., Javdani, H., & Malekirad, A. A. Assessment of dairy products consumed on the Arakmarket as determined by heavy metal residues Health, 6(05), 323(2014).

[9]  Hashemi, S. E., Arfaeinia, H., Ardashiri, S., & Karimyan, K. Health risk assessment of exposure to heavy metals in dairy products collected from Bushehr, Iran. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 10(3), 632(2017).

[10]  Șanal, H., & Güler, Z. Changes in non-essential element concentrations during torba yoghurt production. Akademik Gida, 8(4), 6-12(2010).

[11]  Emsley, J. Titanium". Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press ( 2001).

[12]  de Andrade, C. K., de Brito, P. M. K., dos Anjos, V. E., & Quináia, S. P. Determination of Cu, Cd, Pb and Cr in Yogurt by Slurry Sampling Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry: A Case Study for Brazilian Yogurt. Food Chemistry 240,268-274(2017).

[13]  Meshref, A. M., Moselhy, W. A., & Hassan, N. E. H. Y. Heavy metals and trace elements levels in milk and milk products. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 8(4), 381-388(2014).

[14] Codex Alimentarius, international food stander FOA/WHO(2016).

[15]  WHO .Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health. Geneva, Switzerland:World Health Organization (1996)..

[16]  Lazarev, N.V., Gadaskin, I.D.Harmful Substances in Industry. Vol. 3, Khimia, Leningrad (1977).

[17]  Myron, D. R., Zimmerman, T. J., Shuler, T. R., Klevay, L. M., Lee, D. E., & Nielsen, F. H. Intake of nickel and vanadium by humans. A survey of selected diets. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 31(3), 527-531(1978).

[18]  Marshall, T. M. Lithium as a nutrient. J Am Phys Surg, 20, 104-109(2015).

[19]  Salgueiro, M. J., Zubillaga, M. B., Lysionek, A. E., Caro, R. A., Weill, R., & Boccio, J. R. The role of zinc in the growth and development of children. Nutrition 18(6), 510-519(2002).

[20]  Elham, M. E., Sanaa, M. B., Amr, A. M., & Ahmed, M. H. Evaluation of the factors influencing the content and retention of selected heavy metals in milk and some dairy products. Int. J. Dairy Sci, 6, 305-313(2011).

[21] Abdulkhaliq, A., Swaileh, K., Hussein, R. M., & Matani, M. Levels of metals (Cd, Pb, Cu and Fe) in cow’s milk, dairy products and hen’s eggs from the West Bank, Palestine. International Food Research Journal 19 (3): 1089-1094(2012).

[22]  Hernandez, K., & Park, Y. W. Evaluation of 20 Macro and Trace Mineral Concentrations in Commercial Goat Milk Yogurt and Its Cow Milk Counterpart. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5(10), 889(2014).

[23]  Meunier P. J.; Roux C.; Seeman E.; Ortolani, S; Badurski, JE; Spector, TD; Cannata, J; Balogh, A; Lemmel, EM; Pors-Nielsen, S; Rizzoli, R; Genant, H. K.; Reginster, J. Y. The effects of strontium ranelate on the risk of vertebral fracture in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. New England Journal of Medicine 350(5): 459–468(2004).     

[24]  Nielsen, S.P. The biological role of strontium. Bone, 35(3), pp.583-588(2004).

[25]  Rayman, M. P. Selenium and human health. The Lancet, 379(9822), 1256-1268(2012).

[26]  Pappa, E. C., Pappas, A. C., & Surai, P. F. Selenium content in selected foods from the Greek market and estimation of the daily intake. Science of the Total Environment, 372(1), 100-108(2006).

[27]  Prashanth, L., Kattapagari, K. K., Chitturi, R. T., Baddam, V. R. R., & Prasad, L. K. A review on role of essential trace elements in health and disease. Journal of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences, 4(2), 75(2015).

[28]  Tarakccedil, Z., & Dağ, B. Mineral and heavy metal by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer in traditional Turkish yogurts. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 8(19), 963-966(2013).