Grain yield and its components stability of bread wheat genotypes under rainfed conductions

Muhammed Ali Al-falahi1, Hussain Ahmed Sadalla2, Kamil Mahmood Mustafa3  Shwana Ahmad Hussain3


1 Department of Food Science, College of Agriculture, Duhok University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

2Department of Food Science, College of Agriculture, Salahaddin University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Department of Crops Science, College of Agricultural Sciences, Sulaimani University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Original: 01/12/2017, Revised: 31/01/2018, Accepted: 06/02/2018, Published online:


Ten bread wheat genotypes   (Saraa-1, Sham-4, Maxipak,Babaga-3, Jawhir-3, Sale, NS732, REGAA6-1, QAF2AA-3 and IPA-95) were sown during 2015-2016 growing season at three locations (Sulaimani, Erbil and Duhok) under two sowing dates (1 November and 1 December). Randomized  Complete Block Design was used with three replications to estimate the stability of these genotypes. Three stability parameters (variance across environments, regression coefficient Bi and variance of deviation from regression Sdi) were used to identify the stability in yield and its components .The results showed that the genotypes Babaga-3 and Jawhir-3 had the best values according to stability parameters, indicating their wide adaptability over different  environments and be considered as favored  wheat genotypes under variable rainfall conditions in Iraq. The other genotypes  gave a high stability, performance not superior in yield and other traits, as other superior traits could be introduced to other genotypes in the improvement breeding program. 

  Key Words: Bread wheat, yield components, stability genotype × environment interaction regression


[1] Rizkalla, A. A., Hussien, B. A., Al-Ansary, A. M., Nasseef, J. E., & Hussein, M. H. "Combining ability and heterosis relative to RAPD marker in cultivated and newly hexaploid wheat varieties",  Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, Vol. (6), No. 5, pp. 215-224. (2012).

[2] Sial, M. A., Arain, M. A., & Ahmad, M. "Genotype x environment interaction on bread wheat grown over multiple sites and years in Pakistan", Pakistan Journal of Botany, Vol. (32), No. 1, pp. 85-92. (2000).

[3] Lin, C. S., Binns, M. R., &Lefkovitch, L. P."Stability analysis: where do we stand? ", Crop science, Vol. (26), No. 5, pp. 894-900. (1986).

[4 Ashraf M, Qureshi AS, Ghafoor A, Khan NA. "Genotype-Environment Interaction in wheat", Pak. J. Bio. Sci. Vol. (1), No. 5, pp. 356-357. (2001).

[5] Sharma, R. C., Morgounov, A. I., Braun, H. J., Akin, B., Keser, M., Bedoshvili, D.,  & van Ginkel, M. "Identifying high yielding sTable winter wheat genotypes for irrigated environments in Central and West Asia",  Euphytica, Vol. (171), No. 1, pp 53-64. (2010).

[6] Parveen, L., Khalil, I. H., & Khalil, S. K. "Stability parameters for tillers, grain weight and yield of wheat cultivars in North-West of Pakistan",  Pak. J. Bot, Vol. (42), No. 3, pp. 1613-1617. (2010).

[7] Al-Otayk, S. M. " Performance of yield and stability of wheat genotypes under high stress environments of the central region of Saudi Arabia",  Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Metrology, Environment and Arid Land Agricultural Sciences, Vol. (21), No. 1, pp. 81-92. (2010).

[8] Sharma, R. C., Morgounov, A. I., Braun, H. J., Akin, B., Keser, M., Kaya, Y.,  &Rajaram, S. "Yield stability analysis of winter wheat genotypes targeted to semi-arid environments in the international winter wheat improvement program", Int. plant Breeding Vol. (6), No.1, 7-13. (2012).

[9] El Ameen, T. "Stability analysis of selected wheat genotypes under different environment conditions in upper Egypt",  African Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. (7), No, 34, pp. 4838-4844. (2012).

[10] Sharma, R. K., Osmanzai, M., Singh, R. P., Braun, H. J., & Sharma, R. C. " Identification of high yielding wheat genotypes through evaluation of international nurseries", Cereal Research Communications, Vol. (42), No, 2, pp. 303-313. (2014).

[11] Eberhart, S. A. and Russell, W. A. "Stability parameters for comparing varieties", Crop Science, Vol. (6), No, 1, pp. 36-40. (1966).

[12] Rharrabti, Y., del Moral, L. G., Villegas, D., &Royo, C. " Durum wheat quality in Mediterranean environments: III. Stability and comparative methods in analysing G× E interaction", Field Crops Research, Vol. (80), No, 2, pp. 141-146. (2003).

[13] Amin, M., Mohammad, T., Khan, A. J., Irfaq, M., Ali, A., &Tahir, G. R. "Yield stability of spring wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) in the North West Frontier Province", Pakistan. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol, Vol. (27), No, 6, pp. 1147-1150. (2005).

[14] Shah, S. I. H., Sahito, M. A., Tunio, S., &Pirzado, A. J. "Genotype-environment interactions and stability analysis of yield and yield attributes of ten contemporary wheat varieties of Pakistan", Sindh University Research Journal-SURJ (Science Series), Vol. (41), No, 1, pp. 13-24. (2009).

[15] Akçura, M., Kaya, Y., &Taner, S. "Evaluation of durum wheat genotypes using parametric and nonparametric stability statistics ", Turkish Journal of Field Crops, Vol. (140), No, 2, pp. 111-122. (2009).

[16] Perkins, J. M., & Jinks, J. L. (1968). "Environmental and genotype-environmental components of variability3. Multiple lines and crosses. Heredity (Edinb), Vol. (23), No, 3, pp. 339-56. (1968).  

[17] Yan, W. " Singular-value partitioning in biplot analysis of multienvironment trial data",Agronomy Journal, Vol. (94), No, 5, pp. 990-996. (2002).