Occurrence and isolation of some Fusarium species associated with crown and root rot disease in some wheat fields of Duhok, IKR, Iraq

Bareen Sidqi Shareef Al-Tovi  &  Raed Abduljabbar Haleem

  Plant Protection Department, College of Agriculture, University of Duhok, Duhok  Province, Kurdistan Region -Iraq


The current work was conducted on crown and root rot disease of wheat incited by Fusarium species. A survey was carried out in several wheat fields at Sumel, Duhok province including: (Camone, Hajsne, Namrik, Sharia and Sumel center) during booting and heading stages of wheat in April to May and Ripening in May to Jun during the growing season 2014/15. The symptoms were obvious in all the locations as yellowing, stunting, and browning discoloration of lower stems and roots. The highest disease incidence in both stages was found in Hajsne (67.2% and 74.4%, respectively), while the lowest disease incidence was recorded in Camone (21.6%) at the first survey and increased to (41.6%) in the second survey in Namrike. Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. avenaceum, and F. nivale were isolated from root and crown of wheat. F. graminearum was isolated at high frequency (56%) followed by F. oxysporum (23%). The prevalence of Fusarium species was varied with concern to locations. The highest prevalence of F. graminearum was reported in Camone (70%) followed by Namrike (64%) and the lowest prevalence found in Sumel center (29%), while F. oxysporum and F. solani were the superior species in Sumel center (36%) and Hajsne (22%) respectively. Fusarium spp. were isolated from all wheat fields in both stages, at (Booting to Heading) it was higher accumulated in roots with (42%), increased to (58%) in the (Ripening) which mostly isolated from crown. Pathogenicity test of isolated Fusarium species was performed in greenhouse. F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and F. solani resulted more disease incidence and severity than remaining tested species with obvious symptoms of crown and root discoloration, reducing of wheat growth and wilting.

  Key Words: Fusarium species, Crown and Root Rot, Field survey, Morphological Identification, Wheat


[1] Bockus, W.W., Bowden, R.L., Hunger R.M., Morrill W.L., Murray T.D., Smiley, R.W. “Compendium of Wheat Diseases and Insects” 3rd Edition. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. (2007).

[2] Nicol, J.M., Bagci, A., Hekimhan, H., Bolat, N., Braun, H. J. and Trethowan, R. Strategy for the identification and breeding of resistance to dryland root rot complex for international spring and winter wheat breeding programs Page 283 in: Proc. 4th Int. Crop Sci. Congr., Brisbane, Australia. (2004).

[3] Paulitz, T. C., Smiley, R. W. and Cook, R. J. Insights into the prevalence and management of soilborne cereal pathogens under direct seeding in the Pacific Northwest, USA Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 24(4): 416-428. (2002).

[4] Sallans, B.J. Root rots of cereals III. The Botanical Review, 31(4):505- 536. (1965).

[5] Hajieghrari, B. Wheat crown and root rotting fungi in Moghan area, Northwest of Iran, African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(22):6214-6219. (2009).

[6] Draper, M. A., Stymiest, C. and Jin, Y. Common Root and Crown Rot Diseases of Wheat in South Dakota. Extension Extra.http://openprairie.sdstate.edu/extension_extra/341. (2000).

[7] Chakraborty, S., Obanor, F., Westecott, R. and Abeywickrama, K.Wheat crown rot pathogens Fusarium graminearum and F. pseudograminearum lack specialization, Phytopathology, 100:1057-1065. (2010).

[8] Hameed, M. A., Rana, R. M. and Ali, Z. Identification and characterization of a novel Iraqi isolate of Fusarium pseudograminearum causing crown rot in wheatGenetics and Molecular Research, 11(2): 1341-1348. (2012).

[9] Khalifah, M.H. Molecular identification of wheat crown rot pathogen and evaluation of some protective methods. M.Sc. thesis, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.(In Arabic). (2013).

[10] Taha, Z.A. Wheat root rot in Ninevah government and its biological control. M.Sc. thesis, College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul, Iraq. (In Arabic). (2014).

 [11] Cook, R. J. “Fusarium root, crown, and foot rots and associated seedling diseases”. Compendium of wheat diseases and pests. 3rd ed. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA, 37-39. (2010).

[12] Zadoks, J. C., Chang, T. T. and Konzak, C. F. “A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals”. Weed Research, 14(6): 415-421. (1974).

[13] Bentley A.R., Tunali B., Nicol J.M., Burgess L.W. & Summerell B. A. “A survey of Fusarium species associated with wheat and grass stem bases in northern Turkey” Sydowia 58 (2): 163 - 177. (2006).

[14] McKinney, H. H. “Influence of soil temperature and moisture on infection of wheat seedlings by Helminthosporium sativum”, Journal of Agricultural Research, 26(5), 195-218. (1923).

[15] Booth, C. “Fusarium. Laboratory guide to the identification of the major species”. Common wealth Mycological Institute. Academic press. UK. ISBN 0 85198 3839. (1977).

[16] Nelson, P. E., Dignani, M. C. and Anaissie, E. J. “Taxonomy, biology, and clinical aspects of Fusarium species”. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 7(4): 479-504. (1994).

[17] Summerell, B. A., Salleh, B. and Leslie, J. F. “A utilitarian approach to Fusarium identification” Plant Disease, 87(2): 117-128. (2003).

[18] Leslie, J. F. and Summerell, B. A. “Techniques and methods. Fusarium laboratory manual Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK, 7-8. (2006).

[19] Mitter, V., Zhang, M.C., Liu, C.J., Ghosh, R., Ghosh, M. and Chakraborty, S. “A high-throughput glasshouse bioassay to detect crown rot resistance in wheat germplasm”  Plant Pathology, 55(3): 433-441. (2006).

[20] Eslahi, M. R. “Fungi associated with root and crown rot of wheat in Khuzestan province, Iran”, Journal of Crop Protection, 1(2):107-113. (2012).

[21] Dill-Macky, R. “Root rot diseases in the upper Midwest: A coordinated approach to combatting this complex of diseases, research report”. North Dakota State University. (2013). https://www.extension.umn.edu/ agriculture /cropsresearch/ wheat/2013/ docs/ 2013- wheat-root-rot-diseases.pdf.

[22] Moya-Elizondo, E., Arismendi, N., Castro, M. P. and Doussoulin, H. “Distribution and prevalence of crown rot pathogens affecting wheat crops in southern Chile”, Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 75(1): 78-84. (2015).

[23] Tunali, B., Nicol, J. M., Hodson, D., Uçkun, Z., Büyük, O., Erdurmuş, D., Hekimhan, H., Aktaş,H., Akbudak, M. A. and Bağcı, S. A. “Root and crown rot fungi associated with spring, facultative, and winter wheat in Turkey”, Plant Disease. 92:1299-1306. (2008).

[24] Lyamani, A. “Wheat root rot in west central Morocco and effects of Fusarium culmorum and Helminthosporium sativum seed and soil-borne inoculum on root rot development, plant emergence and crop yield” Ph. D. dissertation, Iowa state University. Ames. (1988).

[25] Fernandez, M. R., and Holzgang, G. “Distribution of Fusarium spp. causing head blight and root rot in cereals in Saskatchewan in 1998” Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food, Regina, pp: 439-445. (1999). https:// www. usask. ca/soilsncrops/ conference ...years/.../1999docs/439.pdf.

[26] De Villiers, C. I. P. “A comparison of screening techniques for Fusarium head blight of wheat in South Africa” M. Sc. thesis, University of the Free State, South Africa. (2009).

[27] Doohan, F.M., Brennan, J. and Cooke, B.M. “Influence of climatic factors on Fusarium species pathogenic to cereals”, European Journal of Plant Pathology. 109: 755-768. (2003).

[28] Pettitt, T., Xu, X. and Parry, D. “Association of Fusarium species in the wheat stem root complex”, European Journal of Plant Pathology 109:769-774. (2003).

[29] Zare, R. and Ershad, D. “Fusarium species isolated from cereals in Gorgan area”, Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 33(1/2). (1997).

[30] Demirci, E. and Dane, E. “Identification and pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. from stem bases of winter wheat in Erzurum, Turkey” Phytoparasitica, 31(2):170-173. (2003).

[31] Wang, Q. “The pathosystem wheat (Triticum aestivum) root-Fusarium graminearum: complex plant responses and fungal strategies” Ph.D. dissertation, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany. (2015).

[32] Boughalleb, N., Souli, M and Sghaier, H. O. “Occurrence and Geographic Distribution of Wheat Fusarium Head Blight and Fusarium Root Rot in Jendouba’s Areas of Tunisia”, African Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology, 2(1): 23-26. (2008).

[33] Bailey, K. L., Harding, H. and Knott, D. R. “Disease progression in wheat lines and cultivars differing in levels of resistance to common root rot”, Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 11: 273-278. (1989).

[34] Burgess, L.W., Backhouse, D., Summerell, B.A. and Swan, L.J. “Chapter 20 in Fusarium” Paul E. Nelson Memorial Symposium. Edited by Summerell B.A., Leslie J.F., Backhouse D. Bryden W.L and Burgess L.W. APS Press, The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America. ISBN 0-89054-268-6. pp. 271-294. (2001).

[35] Chakraborty, S., Liu, C. J., Mitter, V., Scott, J. B., Akinsanmi, O. A., Ali, S., ... and Simpfendorfer, S. “Pathogen population structure and epidemiology are keys to wheat crown rot and Fusarium head blight management”, Australasian Plant Pathology 35(6): 643-655. (2006).

[36] Akinsanmi, O. A., Mitter, V., Simpfendorfer, S., Backhouse, D. and Chakraborty, S. “Identity and pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolated from wheat fields in Queensland and northern New South Wales” Australian Journal of Agricultural Researches 55: 97-107. (2004).

[37] Barnett, H.L. and Hunter, B.B. “Illustrated Genera of Imperfect Fungi” APS Press, St. Paul Minnesota, USA. 241pp. (1972).

[38] Kane, R.T., Smiley, R.W. and Sorrells, M.E. “Relative pathogenicity of selected Fusarium species and Microdochium bolleyi to winter wheat in New York” Plant Dis. 71:177-181. (1987).

[39] Fernandez, M.R. and Chen, Y. “Pathogenicity of Fusarium species on different plant parts of spring wheat under controlled conditions”. Plant Disease  89(2): 164-169. (2005).

[40] Gargouri-Kammoun, L., Gargouri, S., Rezgui, S., Trifi, M., Bahri, N.and Hajlaoui, M.R. “Pathogenicity and aggressiveness of Fusarium and Microdochium on wheat seedlings under controlled conditions”. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection  4(2):135-144. (2009).

[41] Gordon, T.R., Okamoto, D. and Jacobson, D.J. “Colonization of muskmelon and nonsusceptible crops by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis and other species of Fusarium” Phytopathology, 79(10):1095- 1100. (1989).