Effect of Adding Methionine or Choline Chloride to the Low Protein Diets During Production Period of Japanese Quail

Fatma Mustafa Jalal 1, Mohammad  Ibrahim AL-Neemi1


1 Animal Production Department, Agriculture Collage, Kirkuk University, Kirkuk, Iraq

Original: 20/12/2017, Revised: 20/01/2018, Accepted: 06/02/2018, Published online:

DOI Link: https://doi.org/10.17656/jzs.10693


The experiment was conducted in the farm of Poultry - Animal Production department of the faculty of Agriculture - University of Kirkuk from the period of 28.12.2016 until 25.2.2017. The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of adding Methionine and Choline Chloride more than the NRC recommended to the low protein diets on production phase of Japanese Quail. Distributed randomly 140 female Japanese Quail (65 days old) to7 treatments 20 birds each, in five replicates containing 4 birds each cage with dimensions 40×30×20 cm as replicate. Birds fed dietary treatment: control (20% crude protein), T1(18% crude protein), T2(16% crude protein), T3(18% crude protein + adding 20% more than the nutritional requirement of methionine), T4(16% crude protein + adding 20% more than the nutritional requirement of methionine), T5(18% crude protein + adding 20% more than the nutritional requirement of choline) and T6(16% crude protein + adding 20% more than the  nutritional requirement of choline) . The statistical analysis obtained no significant differences in egg production (H.D %), egg mass, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, energy intake and energy conversion ratio. While significant differences have obtained in the mean conversion ratio of protein, methionine and choline, the T1 (control) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than all other treatments in mean of protein intake. The T4 and T5 were significantly higher than all other treatments in the methionine intake. The T6 and T7 were significantly higher than all other treatments in choline intake. The T5 was the beast treatment in protein conversion ratio among treatments, there was significant improvement in mean of methionine conversion ratio in all treatments except T4 and T5. There was significant improvement in mean of choline conversion ratio in all treatments except T6 and T7. The T2 was significantly higher than T6 in mean of shape index and egg specific gravity. The results showed higher shell thickness significantly in (T1) and (T2) treatment compared to other treatment. The T2 and T7 significantly higher than T6 in the percentage of egg shell. The T1 and T4 significantly higher than T7 in The mean of yolk index. The T4 was significantly higher than T7 in mean of yolk percentage and there was no significant differences found in the mean albumen weight percentage, albumen index and haugh unit.                                                                                                                                        

Key Words: Methionine, Choline Chloride , low protein diets , Japanese Quail


 [1] Qureshi, M. S. "Quality control in poultry feed production in Pakistan", Feed International, Vol.(8), pp. 94-95. (1987).

[2] Younis,  D. Th. "Effect of sorghum and methionine supplementation in productive performance and the quality of hatching eggs of two quail strains",  The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Vol.(38), No.2, pp.22-27. (2014).

[3] Moosavi , M. ; Chaji1, M.; boujarpour,  M.; Rahimnahal,  S.; and Kazemi,  A.R . "Effect of different levels of energy and protein with constant ratio on performance and carcass characteristics in broiler chickens", Intl. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci. Vol.(3), No.12, 2485-2488. (2012).

[4] Zofia,T.; Marek, L. ; Danuta, S.; Danuta, M.; and Alicja, D. "Different level of crude protein and energy – protein ratio in adult quail diets", Arch. Tierz., dummerstorf,  Vol.(49), special issue, pp. 325-331. (2006).

[5] Djouvinov, D. and Mihailov. R. "Effect of low protein level on performance of growing and laying japanese quails",  Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Vol.(8), No.2, p.9198. (2005).

[6] Bunchasak, C. "Role of Dietary Methionine in poultry Production", Japan Poult. Sci. Association, Vol.(46), pp.169-179. (2009).

[7] Saki, A. A.; Harsini,  R. N.; Tabatabaei, M. M.; Zamani, P.;  Haghighat, M. and Matin, H. R. "Thyroid function and egg characteristics of laying hens in response to dietary methionine levels",  African Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol.(6), No.20, pp. 4693-4698. (2011).

[8] Mehrdad, B. "Effects of excess dietary lysine and methionine on performance and  economic efficiency of broiler chick", Scholars Research Library, Annals of Biological Research, Vol.(4), No.5, pp.241-246. (2013).

[9] Rafeeq,M.; Pasha, T. N.;  Rashid, N.; Hilal, B. and Shahzad, I. "Effect of supplementation of methionine, betaine and choline on the performance of broiler chicken in early life fed methionine deficient ration", The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, Vol.(21), No.4, pp. 778-780. (2011).

 [10] Algawany,M.; El-Hindawy, M.; Attia, A.; Farag, M. and  Abd El-Hack, M. "Influence of Dietary Choline Levels on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Japanese Quail", Journal.Aavs, Vol(109), pp.2307-8316.(2015).

[11] Calderano,A.A. ; Nunes,  R. V.; Rodrigueiro, R. J. B.; César, R. A. "Replacement of choline chloride by a vegetal source of choline in diets for broilers", Cienc. Anim. Bras., Vol.(16), No.1, pp. 37-44. (2015).

[12] Omara, I.I. "Protein-sparing effect of dl-methionine and choline supplementation of low protein diets on productivity in laying hens", Egyptian J. Anim. Prod., Vol.(49), No.2, pp.219-231. (2012). 

[13] Hollenbeck, C. B. "The importance of being choline", J. Am. Diet. Assoc., Vol.(110), pp.1162-1165. (2010).

[14] Khairani ; Sumiatib; and  Wiryawanb, K. G. "Egg Production and Quality of Quails Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Methionine and Choline Chloride", 39 (1) : 34-39 (2016).

 [15] Garcia,N.M.;  Pestiو G. M. and Bakalli, R. I. "Influence of Dietary Protein Level on the Broiler Chicken’s Response to Methionine and Betaine Supplements",  Poultry Science, Vol.(79), pp.1478–1484. (2000).

[16] Pillai, B.P.; Fanatico, C.A.; Beers, W.K.; Blair, E.M. and Emmert, L.J. "Homocysteine Remethylation in Young Broilers Fed Varying Levels of Methionine, Choline, and Betaine",  Poult. Sci., Vol.(85), pp.90–95. (2006).

[17] N.R.C. “National Research council. Nutrient Requirement of Poultry”, (9th rev. ed.). National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D.S; USA. (1994) .

[18]Garcia, E.A.; Mendes, A.A.; Pizzolante C.C.; Saldanha, E.S.; Moreira, J.; Mori,  C.; Pavan, A.C. "Protein, Methionine+Cystine and Lysine Levels for Japanese Quails During the Production Phase",  Brazilian Journal of Poult.Sci.,   Vol.(7), No.1, pp.11–18. (2005).

[19] Zeweil ,  H. S. ; Abdalah, A. A.; Ahmed, M. H. and Marwa , R. S. A. "Effect of different levels of protein and methionine on performance of baheij laying hens and environmental pollution", Egypt. Poult. Sci., Vol (31) No.II, pp.621-639. (2011).

[20] Aami Azghadi,M.; Kermanshahi, H. and Golian, A. "The Effect of Dietary Energy and Protein Levels   on Growth Performance and Antibody Responses of Offspring of Laying Japanese Quails", Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, Vol.(4), No.1, pp.185-190. (2014).

[21] Sangilimadan,K.; AshaRajini, R.; Prabakaran, R.; Ahmed, M. and Murugan, M. "Effect of different dietary protein on egg qualitytraits in layer Japanese Quails",  Tamilnadu j. Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Vol.(9), No.1, pp.32 - 40. (2013).

[22] Bunchasak, C. and Silapasorn, T. "Effects of Adding Methionine in Low-Protein Diet on Production Performance, Reproductive Organs and Chemical Liver Composition of Laying Hens under Tropical Conditions", Nternational J . Poult. Sci., Vol.(4), No.5, pp.301-308. (2005).                                       

[23] Zhai,Q.H.; Dong, X. F.; Tong, J. M.; Guo, Y. M. and Bao, Y. E. "Long-term effects of choline on productive performance and egg quality of brown-egg laying hens",  Poultry Science, Vol.(92), pp.1824–1829. (2013).

[24] William, N.S.; Rostagno, H.S.; Soares, P. R.; Silva, M.A. and Velasquez, L. F. "Nutritional Requirements in Methionine + Cystine for White-Egg Laying Hens During the First Cycle of Production",  International Journal of Poult.Sci., Vol.(4), No.12, pp.965-968. (2005).

[25] Gomez ,S. and Angeles, M. "Effect of threonine and methionine levels in the diet of laying hens in the second cycle of production",  Poult. Sci. Association, Inc., Vol.(18), pp.452–457. (2009).

[26] Kiran,K.; Tiwari, S.P.; Ravikanth K. and Thakur. A. "Study on Comparative Efficacy of Polyherbal Preparation and Synthetic Methionine, Choline, Lysine and Biotin on Performance of Rhode Island Red Layers", Indian Journal of Research, Vol. (2) No. 8. 33-35. (2013).

[27] Husseiny ,O.M.; Soliman, A.Z.; Omara, I.I.; and El – Sherif,  H.M.R. "Evaluation of Dietary Methionine, Folic Acid and Cyanocobalamin (B ) and Their Interactions in Laying Hen Performance", International Journal of Poult. Sci., Vol. (7), No.5, pp.461-469. (2008).