Correlation and path coefficient analysis of grain yield and Agronomic characters of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under rainfed conditions

Shang Haseeb Abdulqader Noori

University of Sulaimani - College of Agricultural Sciences – Sulaimani – Iraqi Kurdistan Region 


The following study was done during the winter seasons of 2015-2016 at Qlyasan Agricultural Research Station, College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimani, using factorial (6×6×4) design conducted in Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates to study the effect of planting date, plant densities and removal treatments of  bread wheat (Adana-99) cultivars to establish the relationship between yield components and plant traits to the yield (output) of the grain. After the collection of data on bread wheat, a correlation analysis and a path analysis were carried out. Positive and highly significant correlation recorded between grain yield and the spike length, spike weight, number of spikelets/spike, number of grains/spike, weight of grains/spike, 1000- grain weight, harvest index and biological yield. Concerning the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the (dependent variable) and all characters, were the (independent) ones. Maximum and positive direct effect on grain yield recorded by biological yield was (0.855) and followed by harvest index was (0.337). While number of grains/spike was (-0.045) recorded maximum negative direct effect on grain yield.  These relations can be used as selection criteria in breeding studies to improve the higher yields cultivars for that region.

Key Words: Bread wheat, Grain yield, Correlation coefficient and path analysis.


[1] Debasis, P. and Khurana, P. “Wheat biotechnology; A mini review”, Electronic J. Biotechnol, ISSN:0717-3458. (2001).

[2] Ashfaq, M., Khan, A.S. and Ali, Z. "Association of morphological traits with grain yield in wheat", Int. J. Agri. Biol., Vol. (5), pp.262-264. (2003).

[3] Reza N., Ali, K., Farzad P., Saeed V. and Barary, M. "Correlation, path analysis and stepwise regression in yield and yield component in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under the temperate climate of Ilam province, Iran", Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, Vol. (4), No.4, pp.188-198. (2014).

[4] Iftikhar, R., Khaliq, I., Kashif, M., Ahmad, M. and Ullah, S. "Study of morphological traits affecting grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under field stress condition", Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. (11), pp.19-23. (2012).

[5] Mondal, S.k. and Khajuria, M.R. "Correlation and path analysis in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under rainfed condition", Environment and Ecology, Vol. (18), No.2, pp.405-408. (2001).

[6] Kashif, M. and Khaliq, I. "Heritability, correlation and path coefficient analysis for some metric traits in wheat", International Journal of A griculture & Biology, Vol. (6), No.1, pp.138-142. (2004).

[7] Akbar, M., Khan, N.I. and chowdhry, M.H. "Variation and interrelationship between some biometric characters in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)", J. Agric. Res., Vol. (33), pp.247-254. (1995).

[8] Ali, I.H. and Shakor, E.F. "Heritability, variability, genetic correlation and path analysis for quantitative traits in durum and bread wheat under dry farming conditions", Mesopotamia J. of Agri., Vol. (40), No.4, pp.27-39. (2012).

[9] Anwar, J., Ali, M., Hussain, M., Sabir, W., Khan, M., Zulkiffal, M. and Abdullah, M. "Assessment of yield criteria in bread wheat through correlation and path analysis", Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol. (19), pp.185-188. (2009).

[10] Bhutta, W.M., Akhtar, J., Anwar-ul-Haq, M. and Ibrahim, M. "Cause and effect relations of yield components in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under normal conditions”, Caderno de Pesquisa Sér. Bio., Santa Cruz do Sul, Vo. (17), No.1, pp.7-12. (2005).

[11] Arbuckle, J. L. “Amos 18 User,s Guide- Amos Development Corporation”, SPSS Inc., USA. ISBN-13: 978-1-56827-404-1. (2009).

[12] Larik, A.S. "Correlation and path coefficient analysis of yield components in mutants of (Triticum aestivum L.) ", Wheat Inform, Serv., Vol. (50), pp.36-40. (1979).

[13] Aydin, N., Ermet, C., Mut, Z., Bayramo, H.O. and Özcan, H. "Path analyses of yield and some agronomic and quality traits of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under different environments", Afric J. Biotech. Vol. (9), No.32, pp.5131-5134. (2010).

[14] Majumder, D.A.N., Shamsuddin, A.K.M. Kabir, M.A. and Hassan, L. "Genetic variability, correlated response and path analysis of yield and yield contributing traits of spring wheat", J. Bangladesh Agril. Univ., Vol. (6), No.2, pp.227-234. (2008).

[15] Arshad, M., Ali, N. and Ghafoor, A. "Character correlation and path coefficient in soybean Glycine max (L.) Merrill", Pakistan Journal of Botany, Vol. (38), No.1, pp.121-130. (2006).

[16] Del Moral, L., Rharrabti, Y., Villegas, D. and Royo, C. "Evaluation of grain yield and its components in durum wheat under Mediterranean conditions", Agronomy Journal, Vol. (95), No.2, pp.266-274. (2003).

[17] Dewey, D.R. and Lu, K.A. "Correlation and path-coefficient analysis of components of crested wheatgrass seed production", Agronomy Journal, Vol. (51), No.9, pp.515-518. (1959).

[18] Milligan, S., Gravois, K., Bischoff, K. and Martin, F. "Crop effects on genetic relationships among sugar cane traits", Crop Science, Vol. (30), No.4, pp.927-931. (1990).

[19] Webber, C.R. and B.R. Moorthy. "Heritable and Non- heritable Relationship and Variability of oil content and Agronomic characteristics in the F2 Generation of soy bean Crosses", Agron. J., Vol. (44), pp.202-209. (1952).

[20] Singh, R.K. and Chaudhary, B.D. “Biometrical Methods in Quantitative Genetic Analysis”, Kalyani Publishers, New-Delhi Revised Edition, India, pp.318. (1985).

[21] Soomra, Z.A. “Estimation of Geen action and selection parameters in quantitative and qualitative traits of (Gossypium hirsutum L.) ”, Ph.D. Thesis, Sindh Agriculture university, through Department of plant Breeding and Genetics, Faculty of crop production, Tandojam. (2010).

[22] Kristo, I., Szel, M.H., Gyapjas, J. and Szekeres, A. "Effect of sowing date and seeding rate on different winter wheat cultivars", Field crop Res. Vol. (102), No.3, pp.163-171. (2006).

[23] C. P., Zhang, Y.Q., Zhang, D.Y. and Dang, J.Y. "Effects of sowing date and planting density on the grain’s protein component and quality of strong and medium gluten winter wheat cultivars", The J. Applied. Ecol. Vol. (19), No.8, pp.1733-1740. (2008).

[24] Amanullah, Z., Ahmad, K. and Jan, D. "Performance of wheat cultivars sown at different seeding rate under drought stress condition", Archives of Agronomy and soil Sci. Vol. (56), pp.99-105. (2008).

[25] Melahat, A.B. "Effect of removal of some photosynthetic structures of some yield components in wheat", Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi, Vol. (11), No.4, pp.364-367. (2005).

[26] Zecevic, V., Knezevic, D. and Micanovic, D. "Genetic correlations and path coefficient analysis of yield and quality components in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)", Genitica, Vol. (36), No.1, pp.13-21. (2004).

[27] Dolotovskiy, I.M. and Nikonov, V.I., "Genetic correlation of some yield components in spring wheat", Russia. Plant breeding and seed production, Vol. (4), pp.19-21. (1989).

[28] Fellahi, Z. Hannachi, A., Bouzerzour, H. and Bouekrabt, A. "Correlation between Traits and Path Analysis coefficient for Grain yield and other Quantitative Traits in Bread Wheat under Semi Arid conditions", Journal of Agriculture and Sustainability, Vol. (3), No.1, pp.16-26. (2013).

[29] Siahbidi, M.M.P., Aboughadareh, A.P., Tahmasebi, G.R., Seyedi, R. and Jasemi, M. "Factor analysis of agro-morphological characters in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) lines", International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, Vol. (4), No.23, pp.1758 - 1762. (2012).

[30] Khan, H.A., Mohammad, S.H. and Mohammad, S. "Character association and path coefficient analysis of grain yield component in wheat", Crop Research-Hisar, Vol. (17), No.2, pp.229-233. (1999).

[31] Moghaddam, M., Ehdaie, B. and Waines, J.G. "Genetic variation and interrelationships of agronomic characters in landraces of bread wheat from southern Iran", Euphytica, Vol. (95), pp.361-369. (1997).

[32] Karimizadeh, R., Mohtasham, P. and Mohammadi, M. "Correlation and path coefficient analysis of grain yield and yield components in durum wheat under two irrigated and rainfed condition", International Journal of Agriculture: Research and Review, Vol. (2), No.3, pp.277- 283. (2012).

[33] Mecha B., Alamerew, S., Assefa, A., Assefa E. and Dutamo, D. "Correlation and Path Coefficient Studies of Yield and Yield Associated Traits in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes", Adv. Plants & Agric. Res.,Vol. (6), No.5. (2017).

[34] Dutamo D., Alamerew S., Eticha F. and Assefa E. "Path Coefficient and Correlation Studies of Yield and Yield Associated Traits in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Germplasm", World Applied Sciences Journal, Vol. (33), No.11, pp.1732-1739. (2015).

[35] Muhammad F.A., Iqbal, M., Masood, M.S., Rabbani M.A. and Munir, M. "Assessment of genetic diversity among the Pakistan wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) advanced breeding lines using RAPD and SDS-PAGE", Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. (13), No.3. (2010).

[36] Sherwan I.T., D.A. Abdulkhaleq, Sh.J. Hama and Sh.H. Abdulqader. "Correlation and Path Analysis in Barley Under Rainfall Conditions", Journal of Zankoi Sulaimani, Vol, (18), No.3, pp.99-106. (2016).

[37] Singh, S.P. and Diwivedi, V.K. “Character association and path analysis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ”, Agric. Sci. Digest, Vol. (22), No.4, pp.225-257. (2002).

[38] Leilah, A. A. and Al- Khateeb, S. A. "Statical analysis of what yield under drought conditions", Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. (61), pp.483-496. (2005).