Impact of high dietary carbohydrates on feed evacuation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

Rabar Mahmoud Rasheed1 , Nadir Abed Salman2

College of Agricultural Sciences, University of  Sulaimani ,  Kurdistan Region, Iraq

2Mazaya University College, Baladiat Street, Dhi Qar-Iraq

Original: 30/12/2017, Revised: 01/02/2018, Accepted: 10/02/2018, Published online:

DOI Link:  https://doi.org/10.17656/jzs.10708


A total of 120 young common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) ranging in weight from 25 g to 39 g were used to study the effect of feeding high carbohydrate diets on feed evacuation. Fish were fed at the rate of 3% body weight on three rations, standard ration SR (37%), and medium carbohydrate ration MCR (42%) and high carbohydrate ration HCR (53%) for 70 days in oval plastic tanks using 4 replicates for each treatment. Pellets enriched with 2% iron powder as a marker were used for additional 21 days for X-ray tracing. Pre-prandial starvation for one day was adopted before feeding the experimental diets and X–raying the fish at six intervals (1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h) after feeding to estimate the evacuation rate and time. Results showed that  high carbohydrate ration was evacuated faster than MCR and SR ration. After 24 hours of feeding, 91 % of the HCR ration was evacuated compared with 84 and 79 % in both SR and MCR ration. Differences between HCR and the other two rations were significant (P<0.05).The rate of evacuating HCR ration ranged between 6.7 -7.6 % per hour compared with 5.5 -6.3% per hour for MCR and 5.7-7 % per hour for SR ration.  The theoretical evacuation time of HCR reached 26 h. compared with 30-31 h for the MCR and SR rations respectively. The results were discussed in term of the role of inert and indigestible fibrous materials which can accelerate the passage of food in fish alimentary canal. The validity of the radiographic method for estimating the rate of evacuation in omnivores carp was also evaluated.

Key Words: High carbohydrate Feed evacuation Common carp


[1] Mazlan A. G., B. Othman, H. R. and Grove, D. J. "An evaluation of X-radiography studies in estimation of gastric emptying time (GET) in Whiting (Merlangius merlangus L.) " Online Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol.(2), No.2, pp.109-115. (2002).

[2] Talbot, C. “Laboratory methods in fish feeding and nutritional studies”. In Fish Energetics,New Perspectives, pp. 125-154 [P. Tytler and P. Calow, editors]. Beckenham: Croom Helm. (1985).

[3] Sveier H, Wathne E, Lied E. "Growth, feed and nutrient utilization and gastrointestinal evacuation time in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): the effect of dietary fish meal particle size and protein concentration", Aquaculture, Vol.(180), pp.265-82. (1999).

[4] Talbot, C. and Higgins, P. J. "A radiographic method for feeding studies on fish using metallic iron powder as a marker", J. Fish Biol., Vol.(23), pp. 211-220. (1983).

[5] Salman, N. A. “Nutritional and physiological effects of dietary NaCl on rainbow trout (Salma gairdneri Richardson) and its application in fish culture” PhD Thesis, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK. 467 pp. (1987).

[6] Singh, R. P. and Srivastava, A. K. "Satiation time, gastric evacuation and appetite revival in Heteropneustes fossilis Bloch (Siluriformes: Pisces) ", Aquaculture, Vol.(49), pp.307-313. (1985).

[7] Tekinay, A. A and Guner, Y. "Effects of dietary protein and high energy density on gastric evacuation and return of appetite in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss", Tr. Jr. Biol., Vol.(25), No.2, pp. 229-240. (2001).

[8] Grove, D. J., Moctezuma, M. A., Flett, H. R. J., Foott, J. S., Watson, T. & Flowerdew, M. W. "Gastric emptying and the return of appetite in juvenile turbot, Scopthalmus maximus L. fed on artificial diets", J. Fish Biol., Vol.(26), pp.339-354. (1985).

[9] Hilton, J. W., and Hodson, P. V. "Effect of increased dietary carbohydrate on selenium metabolism and toxicity in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) ", J. Nutr., Vol.(113), pp.1241-1248. (1983).

[10] Davies, S. J. “The role of dietary fibre in fish nutrition. Pp. 219-249 in Recent Advances in Aquaculture” J. F. Muir and R. R. Roberts, eds. London: Croom Helm. (1988).

[11] Jobling, M. "Mathematical models of gastric emptying and the estimation of daily rates of food consumption for fish", J. Fish. Biol., Vol.(19), pp. 245-257. (1981).

[12] Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. Statistical methods. 6th edition. Iowa State University Press, USA. (1968).

[13] Pfeffer, E. "Utilization of dietary protein by salmonid fish", Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Vol.(73B), No.1, pp.51-57. (1982).

[14] Jobling, M., and Davies, P. S. "Gastric evacuation in plaice (Pleuronectes platessa): effect of temperature and meal size", J. Fish Biol., Vol.(14), pp. 539-546. (1979).

[15] Storebakken, T., Kvien, I.S., Shearer, K. D. "Estimation of gastro-intestinal evacuation rate in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using inert markers and collection of faeces by sieving: evacuation of diets with fish meal, soybean meal of bacterial meal", Aquaculture, Vol.(172), pp. 291-9. (1999).

[16] Tekinay, A. A. , Yusuf , G. and Simon J. D. "Influence of Dietary Energy Level on Stomach Emptying and Appetite Revival Rates in Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss", Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., Vol.(27), pp. 1077-1084. (2003).

[17] Zhen Y.D., Tian L.X, Liang G.Y. , Han-Bing Lan and Yong-Jian Liu. "The Intestinal Evacuation and Maximum Daily Consumption of Purified Formulated Diets by Juvenile Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) ", The Open Fish Sci. J., Vol.(2), pp.1-5. (2009).

[18] Lin H.R. “The physiology of fishes” Guangdong Higher Education Press. Guangzhou, pp. 35-54. (1999).

[19] Li, S., Yang, H. & Lu, W. "Preliminary research on diurnal feeding rhythm and the daily ration for silver carp, bighead carp and grass carp", J. Fish China, Vol.(4), pp. 275-83. (1980).

[20] Fauconneau, B. Choubert, G. & Blanc, D. "Influence of environmental temperature on flow rate of foodstuffs through the gastrointestinal tract of rainbow trout", Aquaculture, Vol.(34), pp. 7-39. (1983).

[21] Brodeur, R.D. "Gastric evacuation rates for two foods in the black rockfish, Seabastes melanops Girard", J. Fish Biol. Vol.(24), pp. 287-98. (1984).

[22] Basimi RA & Grove D.J. "Gastric emptying rate in Pleuronectes platessa L. ", J. Fish Biol., Vol.(26), pp. 545-52. (1985).

[23] Jobling M.. "Influences of food particle size and dietary energy content on patterns of gastric evacuation in fish: test of a physiological model of gastric emptying", J. Fish. Biol., Vol.(30), pp. 299-314. (1987).

[24] Lee, S.M., Hwang, U.G. & Cho, S.H. "Effects of feeding frequency and dietary moisture content on growth, body composition and gastric evacuation of juvenile Korean rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli)", Aquaculture, Vol.(187), pp. 399-409. (2000).