Acomparison Study between Barley and Concentrate feeding on the growth and digestibility of Karadi male Lambs

Sarwar M. Sadq 

     Department of Animal Science, College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.


Twenty six Karadi male lambs were used in this experiment with an average live body weight of 28.7± 0.553 kg. Lambs were 5 months old and assign randomly to two feeding groups of thirteen lambs each. Lambs in the first group were fed a whole barley grain based diet and the second group were fed a concentrate pellets. Both groups received ad-libitum of chopped barley straw. All lambs were received an equal daily allowance of concentrate pellet or barley grain (3 % of their body weights). Lambs were fed their rations for 9 weeks.  At the 8th week of the feeding period, the apparent digestibility trial was conducted on four ram lambs of each group, where the total feed intake and feces was recorded. The result showed that lambs fed concentrate pellet significantly (P<0.05) had better total gain, average daily gain, daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio as compared with the lambs fed whole barley grain. Average daily nutrient intake and in vivo apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, CF and NFE were significantly (P<0.05) higher in lambs fed concentrate pellet as compared to the barley fed group. In conclusion, the lambs fed concentrate pellet diet had better performance, digestibility of nutrients and more economical as compare to lambs fed barley grain.

Key Words: Barley, concentrate pellet, digestibility, Karadi lambs performance.


[1] Alkass, J. E., Pedawy A. J. and Abdulkareem T. A. Effect of different dietary protein levels and age on testicular development and ultastructure in Karadi ram lambs. Internaltional Journal of Agricultural and Food Reseach. Vol (2), No. 4, pp.14-24. (2013).

[2] Beever, D. E., and Siddons R. C. Digestion and metabolism in the grazing ruminant. In: L. P.Milligan, W. L. Grovum. Protein and energy use by ruminants Dobson (Ed.) Control of Digestion and Metabolisimn Ruminants. Academic Press, New York. pp 479. (2009).

[3] Cruickshank, G. J., Poppi D. P., and Sykes A. R. “The intake, digestion and protein degradation of grazed herbage by early weaned lambs”. British Journal of Nutrition. Vol. (68):349. (1992).

[4] Leng, R., A. “Factors affecting the utilization of 'poor-quality' forages by ruminants particularly under tropical conditions”. Nutrition Research Reviews. Vol. (3), No. 1. pp. 277-303. (1990).

[5] Macit, M., Esenbuga, N., and Karaoglu , M. “Growth performance and carcass characteristics of Awassi, Morkaraman and Tushin lambs grazed on pasture and supported with concentrate”. Small Ruminant Research, Vol (44), No. 3, pp. 241-246. (2002).

[6] Leeds, T.D. and Lewis G.S. “Breed Comparisons and Trends for Ewe Productivity and Lamb Growth Traits in Sheep Managed as Contemporaries in a Western Range System”. American Society of Animal Science. Vol. (57), No. 1, pp. 77-99. (2006).

[7] Abo Omar, J. Sheep and goats raising in Palestine. Rural Res. Center. An_Najah University. (1992).

[8] M.O.A. Ministry of Agriculture, Records on various branches of plants and crops. Palestinian National Authority. (1999).

[9] Heydari, KH, Dabiri, N., Fayazi, J. and Roshanfekr. Effect of Ionophores monensin and lasalocid on performance and carcass characteristics in fattening Arabi lambs. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. Vol. (7), No.1, pp. 81-84. (2008).

[10] Hassan, S. A, Sadq S.M., and Hassan, Kh. M. Evaluation of Fungal or Chemical Treatments for Barley Straw in Ruminants Feeding 1-Chemical composition, in vitro, in vivo digestibility and voluntary intake. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Vol. (8), No.2; pp 233. (2012).

[11] MAFF. Ministry of agriculture, fisheries and food, energy allowances and feeding systems for ruminants. Tech. Bull. 33. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. London, UK. (1975).

[12] AOAC. Association of official analytical chemists, official methods of analysis, 14th ed. Washington, dc. 1018. (1995).

[13] Le houerou, H.N. Chemical composition and nutritive value of browse in Tropical West Africa. In Le Houerou (ed): Browse in Africa, ILCA, Addis Ababa: 261-289. (1980).

[14] Addinsoft. Xlstat, analyse de données et statistique avec ms excel. Addinsoft; 2007. Ny, usa. Url Available: http://www.xlstat.com/.

[15] Duncan, D. B. Multiple ranges and multiple "F" test. Biometrics, Vol. (11), pp. 1-12. (1955).

[16] Sefdeen, S.M., and Alkass, J. E. “Effect of castration and slaughter weight on some fattening performance and carcass characteristics of Karadi lambs” Journal Duhok University. Vol. (12), pp. 95-101. (2009).

[17] Alkass, J. E., Tahir, M. A., Alrawi, A. A., and Badawi, F. S. “Performance of crossbred lambs raised under two different feeding regimes” World Review of Animal Production., XXIII, 21-25. (1987).

[18] Mialon, M.M., Martin, C., Garcia, F., Menassol, J. B., Dubroeucq, H., Veissier, I. and Micol, D. Effects of the forage-to-concentrate ratio of the diet on feeding behaviour in youngBlond d’Aquitaine bulls. Animal .Vol. (2), pp.1682–1691. (2008).

[19] Abo Omar, J. and Gavoret, L. Utilizing olive cake in fattening rations. Vet. Med. Rev. Vol. (146), No.4, pp. 273-276. (1995).

[20] Hammadi, W., Abo Omar, J., Otlunan R. and Shanti, H. Comparison and evaluation of Awassi lambs fattening systems in Palestine. Egyptian Journal Nutrition and Feeds.Vol. (5), No. I, pp. 23 – 29. (2002).

[21] Al-Doori, Z. T. O. Effect of fattening system in growth features and carcass for Awassi lambs. PhD. Thesis, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad. (2006).

[22] Malisetty, V and Yerradoddi R. R. Effect of concentrate supplementation on growth and carcass characteristics in grazing ram lambs. International Journal of Food, Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences. Vol. (3), No.1, pp.43-48. (2013).

[23] Hunter, R. A. Some aspects of the role of concentrates in increasing feed intake and productivity of cattle fed fibrous diets. In: R. M. Dixon (Ed.) Ruminant Feeding Systems Utilizing Fibrous as agricultural Residues-1987. International Development Program of Australian Universities and Colleges, Canberra. (1988).

[24] Drouillard, J. S., Ferrell, C. L., Klopfenstein, T. J. and Britton, R. A. “Compensatory growth following metabolizable protein or energy restrictions in beef steers” Journal of Animal Science. Vol. (69), No. 2, pp. 811-818. (1991).

[25] Blanco, C., Giráldez, F. J., Prieto, N., Benavides, J., Wattegedera, S., Morán, L., S. Andrés and Bodas, R. Total mixed ration pellets for light fattening lambs: effects on animal health. Animal .Vol. (9) No. 2, pp. 258–266. (2015).

[26] Murugan, M., Karunanithi, K., and Krishnan, A. R.”Comparative performance of sheep and goat install fed conditions”. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition, Vol. (10), No. 4, pp. 255-257. (1997).

[27] Shehata, E. I. “Report on a new approach for a more economic lamb fattening system”. Egyptian Journal of Animal Production. Vol. (34), No. 2, pp. 115-123.(1997).

[28] Buriro, W.A. “Growth and carcass weights of lambs under two management systems”. Masters Thesis submitted to Sindh Agriculture University, Tando Jam. Pp.43-88. (1997)

[29] Karaoglu, M., Macit, M., and Aksoy, A. “A study on the fattening performance of Tushin lambs subjected to intensive feeding”. Turk Veterinerlik ve Hayvancilik Dergisi. Vol. (25), No. 3, pp. 255-260. (2001).

[30] Zundt, M., Macedo, F., de, A. F., Martins, E. N., Mexia, A. A. and Yamamoto, S. M. “Performance of lambs fed with different protein levels”. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. Vol. (31), No. 3, pp. 1307-1314. (2002).

[31] Mould, F. L. and Orskov, E. R. Manipulation of rumen fluid pH and its influence on cellulolysis in sacco, dry matter degradation and the rumen microflora of sheep offered either hay or concentrate. Animal Feed Science and Technology. Vol. (10), pp. 1–14. (1983).

[32] Sauvant, D., Meschy, F. and Mertens, D. Components of ruminal acidosis and acidogenic effects of diets. INRA Productions Animales. Vol. (12), pp. 49–60. (1999).

[33] Papi, N., Mostafa-Tehrani, A., Amanlou, H. and Memarian, M. Effects of dietary forage to concentrate ratios on performance and carcass characteristics of growing fat-tailed lambs. Animal Feed Science and Technology. Vol. (163), pp. 93–98. (2011).

[34] McLeod, K. R. and Baldwin, R. L. Effects of diet forage: concentrate ratio and metabolizable energy intake on visceral organ growth and in vitro oxidative capacity of gut tissues in sheep. Journal of Animal Science. Vol. (78), pp. 760–770. (2000).

[35] Van Soest, P.J., Ferreira, A. M. and Hartley, R. D. Chemical properties of fiber in relation to nutritive quality of ammonia-treated forages. Animal Feed Science and Technology. Vol. (10), pp. 155–164. (1984).

[36] Carrasco, S., Panea, B., Ripoll, G., Sanz, A. and Joy, M., Influence of feeding systems on cortisol levels, fat colour and instrumental meat quality in light lambs. Meat Science. Vol. (83), pp. 50–56. (2009).

[37] Johnson, C. R., Doyle, S. P. and Long, R. S. Effect of feeding system on meat goat growth performance and carcass traits. Sheep and Goat Research Journal. Vol. (25), pp. 78–82. (2010).

[38] Tufarelli, V., Khan, R. U. and Laudadio, V. Feeding of wheat middlings in lamb total mixed rations: Effects on growth performance and carcass traits. Animal Feed Science and Technology. Vol. (170), pp. 130–135. (2011).

[39] Archimede, H., Pellonde, P., Despois, P., Etienne, T. and Alexandre, G. Growth performances and carcass traits of Ovin Martinik lambs fed various ratios of tropical forage to concentrate under intensive conditions. Small Ruminant Research. Vol. (75), pp. 162–170. (2008).

[40] Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G., Yáñez-Ruiz, D. R., Martin-Garcia, A. I. and Molina-Alcaide, E. Effects of forage: concentrate ratio and forage type on apparent digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and microbial growth in goats. Journal of Animal Science. Vol. (87), pp. 622–631. (2009).

[41] Molina-Alcaide, E., García, A. I. M. and Aguilera, J. A comparative study of nutrient digestibility, kinetics of degradation and passage and rumen fermentation pattern in goats and sheep offered good quality diets. Livestock Production Science. Vol. (64), pp. 215–223. (2000).

[42] Ramanzin, M., Bailoni, L. and Schiavon, S. Effect of forage to concentrate ratio on comparative digestion in sheep, goats and fallow deer. Animal Science. Vol. (64), pp. 163–170. (1997).

[43] Castrillo, C., Fondevila, M., Guada, J. A. and De Vega, A. Effect of ammonia treatment and carbohydrate supplementation on the intake and digestibility of barley straw diets by sheep. Animal Feed Science and Technology. Vol. (51), pp. 73–90. (1995).

[44] Haddad, S.G. Effect of dietary forage: concentrate ratio on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing Baladi kids. Small Ruminant Research. Vol. (57), pp. 43–49. (2005).

[45] Ogan, M. “The fattening performance and carcass characteristics of Karayaka male lambs”. Lalahan Hayvancilik Arastirma Enstitusu Dergisi. Vol. (40), No. 2, pp. 37-44. (2000).