Determination of Some Chemical Constitutes of Oak Plants (Quercus spp) in the Mountain Oak Forest of Sulaimani Governorate


Noori Hassan Ghafour1, Hoshyar Abdullah Aziz1, Ra'ad M. Almolla2

College of Science, University of Sulaimani, 2 College of Science, University of Baghdad



Abstract:
In this research work some chemical constitutes of Oak species were evaluated as a natural products in
acorn, pericarp and cupules in the tree oak species (Quercus aegilops, Q. infectoria and Q. libani).
The plant sample was collected in Khamza location district of Sulaimani Governorate during October- November 2004.
The preliminary chemical detection for the composition in acorn, pericarp and cupules in each of the
three species showed the presence of flavonoid, alkaloid, glycosides, tannins, phenolic compounds, resins,
saponins, terpenes and steroid while the detection gave a negative results for alkaloids and saponins in acorn
of the three test oak species.
Total phenols conc. was determined by folin-cioculate method, while the total tannins were determined by
radical diffusion method after extraction by dissolving samples in acetone (70%). Results indicated the
existence of significant differences in total phenols and total tannins, conc. at 5% LSD among the fruit parts
and species, indicating that pericarp of Q. aegilops contain the highest conc. of total phenols and total
tannins, reaching (268.38 and 180.814 mg/g) respectively. Conc. of these compounds in cupules of Q.
infectoria were the lowest reaching (171.49 and 51.802 mg/g) respectively.
Ellagic acids were separated and determined using HPLC technique (high performance liquid
chromatography), column (BD-C-18) type and mobile phase (0.01 M potassium phosphate buffer, methanol
70:30 v/v) after extraction by methanol (80%). The acorn of Q. infectoria contained the highest conc. of
ellagic acid (5.168 mg/g) while cupules of Q. libani contained the lowest conc. of these compounds (1.310 mg/g).

Keywords: Various Oak species (Quercus aegilops, Q. infectoria and Q. libani), acetone
and methanol extraction, HPLC, folin-coiculate and radical diffusion method determination.

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