Numerical Groundwater Flow Modeling for The Intwrgranular Aquifer in Sarsian Sub-Basin, Dokan Lake, Iraqi Kurdistan Region

Salahalddin S. Ali, Sardar Kaka Rash Salley

Faculty of Science and Science Education, University of Sulaimani, 2 Directory of Ground Water- Sulaimani, Iraqi Kurdistan Region

Sarsian sub-basin is located in the northeastern part of Iraq and to the northwest of
Sulaimani governorate, north of Dokan dam between Northing (3987401–4006440) and
Easting (498677–506055), covering an area of 99 km2. It is located within the Dokan
reservoir catchment area. It extends on the left bank of the reservoir along the distance of
19 Km. The main aquifers in the studied area are integranular Quaternary aquifer and
karstic to karstic fissured aquifer of Qamchuqa and part of Sarmord. Based on the
analysis of the available water points, it was found that the general groundwater
movement is from northeast to southwest, with two different directions; one unconfined
and the other confined aquifer. Based on the well tests performed on 14 wells that
penetrate the Quaternary aquifer, it was found that the hydraulic conductivity to be with
median value of 3.445 m/d, transmissivity with median value of 382.95 m2/day and specific
yield with median value of 0.1. Groundwater flow simulation was performed for the north
part of Sarsian Sub-basin in both steady and transient states. The steady-state simulation
is based on lower groundwater level (October 2009). A qualitative analysis of the map
indicates that the simulated and the observed piezometric contours display the same
pattern. The hydraulic gradients obtained from the simulated piezometry are similar to
those of the observed piezometry in the whole study area. The model was run for four
future scenarios of groundwater level. The first scenario of Dokan lake stage was
simulated, and three stress periods of transient simulated with different volume of
extraction per day. From the results, it is obvious that Dokan Lake stage has significant
influence on the head fluctuations in the area.

1- Al Manmi, D. A., (2008): Water resources management in Rania area, Sulaimaniyah NE-Iraq. Unpublished ph.D. thesis, University of            Baghdad, 225p.
2- Anderson, M.P. and Woessner, W.W., (1992): Applied groundwater modeling: Simulation of flow and advective transport. Academic press,        San Diego.381p.
3- Buday, T. and Jassim, S.Z. (1987): The Regional geology of Iraq .Vol. II: Tectonism, Magmatism, and Metamorphism. 352 P.
4- Chiang, W.H., and Kinzelbach, W. (2003): Modflow a computer program for groundwater flow and pollution.
5- Chiang, W.H. (2005): 3D–Groundwater modeling with PMWIN, A simulation system for modeling groundwater flow and transport processes     2nd edition, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 414 p.
6- Chnaray M.A.H.(2003): Hydrogeology and hydrochemistry of Kapran basin, Erbil, N– of Iraq, Unpublished PhD. Thesis, College of Science,        University of Baghdad, Iraq.172p.
7-Dellur, J. W, (1999): The hand book of groundwater engineering Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indian, 940 P.
8-Harbaugh, Arlen W., (2005): Modflow-2005, the U.S. geological survey modular ground-water model the ground-water flow process,        techniques and methods 6- A16.U S. geological survey, 206 p.
9- Jassim, S. Z., and Goff. J. C (eds.), (2006): Geology of Iraq. Dolin , Prague and Moravian Museum .Brno 341P.
10- Kruseman, G . P. and de Ridder, N.A., (1994): Analysis and evaluation of pumping test data. International institute for land reclamation      and imporovement, Wageningen, the Netherlands, 377 P.
11-Schaaf, S.V., (2004): A single well pumping and recovery test to measure in Situ Acrotelm Transmissivity in Raised Bogs. Journal of    hydrology, Vol 290: pp. 152- 160.
12-Todd, D.K. (2005): Groundwater hydrology (3nd edition). John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA, 650 P.