Ostracoda of Fat’ha Formation (Middle Miocene) from (Darbandikhan and Aghjalar) sections, Sulaimani- Kurdistan Region/ Northeastern Iraq


Omran Abdulla Hawramy1, Saleh Khuder Khalaf2

Agricultural Technical College of Halabjah, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, 2 College of Science, University of Mosul



Abstract
The present study investigated Middle Miocene  Ostracoda from the two outcrops of  
Fat’ha Formation (M.Miocene), Sulaimani area, Kurdistan region NE Iraq. Twenty six  Ostracod species belongs to twenty  genera recorded in the present study  in addition to new two morphotypes. On the basis of the stratigraphic distribution of the Ostracode species recorded in the present study, three Ostracode Assemblage Biozones were proposed in Darbandikhan section, and two Ostracode Assemblage Biozones in the Aghjalar section. Correlation based on the geographical distribution of the recorded genera with India, Iran, Turkey, North Africa and South Europe, in order to identify the Bioprovinces during the Miocene and the nature of marine connections. Based on the Ostracoda genera and the sedimentary evidence, the environment of the Fat’ha Formation interpreted in the studied area. 

References 
1-Abdol Rassul, A.H. and Al-Sheikhly, S.S. (2001): Ostracoda of Fat'ha Formation (M. Miocene), from Central Iraq. Raf. Jour. Sci., 12(4), pp.47-  59. 
2-Ahmed, M., Neal, J.W. and Siddiqui, Q.A. (1991) : Tertiary Ostracoda from the Lindiarea, Tanzania, Bul. British Mus. Geol., London, 46(2),  pp.175-270. 
3-Ahmed, S. T., (1994) : Calcareous Micropaleontology of the Neogene of Cox‘s Bazar, Bangladesh. Revesta Espanola Micropal. , XXVI(1) ,  pp.31-67 . 
4-Al-Juboury, A. I. , Al-Naqip, S. Q., and Al-Juboury, A. M., (2001) : Sedimentology, Mineralogy and Depositional Environments of the Clastic  Units,Fat´ha  Formation, (Middle Miocene),S. Mosul, Dirasat, Vol. 28, No. 1, PP. 80-105. 
5-Allen, P. A., P. Homewood and G. D. Williams, (1986) : Forland Basins : An Introduction. In, P. A. Allen and P. Homewood (Eds.), Forland  Basins, International Associtation of Sedimentologists Special Publication No. 8, pp. 3-12 . 
6-Al-Rawi ,Y. T., Sayyab, A. S., Al-Jassim, J. A., Tamar-Agha , M., Al-Sammarai, A. I., Karim, S. A., Basi M. A., Hqgopian, D. , Hassan,K. M. , 7-7-Al-Mubarak, M. & Al-Badri, A., (1992) : New names for some of the Middle Miocene-Pliocene Formations of Iraq (Fat´ha , Injana,  Mukdadiya and Bai Hassan Formations) , Iraq, Geo. Jour. Vol.25, No.1,pp.1-17 . 
8-Aruta, L. , (1966) : Ostracodi del Saheliano (Miocene sup.) dei dintorn. Calatafimi (Sicilia sudoccidentale). Riv. Min. Sicil. , pp.100-102,  pp.198-207. 1 pl.  
9-Ayress, M. , Barrows, T. , Passlow, V. and Whatley, R. ,(1991) : Neogene to Recent species of Krithe (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from the Tasman  Sea and off Southern Australia with description of five new species , Records of the Australian Museum, 51, pp. 1-22 . ISSN. 0067-1975 . 
10-Bellen, R.C. Van, Dunnigton, H.V., Wetzel, R. & Morton, D.M. (1959): Lexique stratigraphicue International Asie, Iraq. Int. Geol. Conger.  Comm. Stratig., Vol.3, Fasc. 10a, pp.1-333. 
11-Benson, R. H. (1976): Miocene deep-sea ostracod of the Iberian portal and Balaeric Basin. Micropal., 11(1), pp.249-262. 
12-Bhatia, S. B. and Mandwal, M. K. , (1960) : Burdigalian Ostracoda from the Surat Broach area, Western India, Jour. Pal. , 34(2),pp. 280-284,    Pl. 41  
13-Bold, W. A., Van den , (1946) : Contribution of the study of Ostracoda with special reference to thr Tertiary and Cretaceous Microfauna of    the Caribbean region. Utrecht,Univ.doctoral diss Amsterdam , De Bussy, pp.1-167,Pls. 1-18, Text Figs. 1-8,Tabls1-6 2 maps. 
14-Bold, W. A., Van den , (1958) : Ostracoda of the Brasso Formation of Trinidad, Micropal. 4,(4), pp.391-418 ,Pls. 1-5, Text,Figs.1-2,Tabl-1.
15-Bold, W. A., Van den , (1966) : Les Ostracodes due Neogene Gabon, Revue Inst. fr. Petrole. Vol. XXI, No. 2, pp.155-189, pl. 11 . 
16-Bonaduce, G.; ismuh, H.; Ruggieri, G; Russo, A. and Maschellaro, P., (1987) : Marins Ostracodes ot the Upper Miocene of the Well Ashtar 1    (Gulf Gabes, Southestern Tunisia). Develop. Paleontol. Stratig.. Vol. 11, PP. 1087-1100 . 
17-Bossio, A., Antonia, B., Prato, S.D., Foresi, L.M. and Oggiano, G. (2006): Premilinary stratigraphical investigations on the Miocene    successions of the proto torres basin (Northern Sardinia, Italy). Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat., Mem., Serie A, pp.67-74, fig 5, tab. 1. Tav. 1. 
18-Busk, H. C. and Mayo, H. T. , (1918) : Some notes on the Geology of the Persian Oil Field, Jour.Inst.Petr. Techn. 5,3-26, In : Bellen, V. R. C.  et al. , 1959 . 
19-Carbonnel, G. (1969): Les Ostracods du Miocene Rhodanien. Doc. Lab. Geol. Fac. Sci. lyon, No.32, 469 p.16 pl.,57 tablets, 98 figs.Guha,  
20-Consentino, D., Federici, I., Cipollari, P. and Gliozzi, E. (2004) : Environments and tectonic instability in central Italy (Garigliano Basin)  during the late Messinian Lago-Mave episode, New data from the onshore Mondvagone 1 well. Sedimentary Geology, Volumes 1881989,  pp.297-317. 
21-Daneshain, J. and Dana, L.R. (2007) : Some Ostracoda from the Qom Formation of the North of Central Iran. Department of Geology,  Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran. 
22-Doruk, N. (1979) : Neogene and Quaternary Ostracoda of Adana and Antakya Basins (Turkey). VII. International Symposium on Ostracoda.  Belgrade, pp.166-172 . 
23-Ducasse, O. , (1967) : Biozonation de 1’Eocene nord- Aquitain. Bull. Soc. Geol. France, 7(11) , pp.491-501 . 
24-El-Waer, A.A. (1991): Miocene Ostracoda from AL-Khums Formation, Northwestern Libya In: Proc. Of the 3rd. symposium on the Geology  of Libya. Tripoli Libya. 
25-Faranda, C., Gliozzi, E. and Ligios, S. (2007) : Late Miocene brackish Loxoconchidae (Crustacea, Ostracoda): from Italy. Geobios, In Press,  Corrected proof. 
26-Guha, D.K. (1961) : A note on the Ostracodes from Lower Miocene of Chaasra Kutch, Bull. Geol. Min. Mettall. Soc., India, Calcutta, 24,  pp.1-6, pl. 1 . 
27-Guha, D. K. , (1975) : On some Ostracoda from Miocene of Bombay offshore well, Bull. ONGC. Col. 11, No.2, pp.13-20, 1 Pl. 
28-Guha, D. K. , (1980) : On some Recent Ostracoda from West Coast of India, Geoscience Jour., 1(2), pp. 41-50, pl.1 . 
29-Hanai, T. , (1957) : Studies on the Ostracoda from Japan, Subfamily Leptocytherininae. n. subfam., Jour. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo Sec.11, Vol.x ,  pp.431-468 , 3Pls. 
30-Hartmann, G., and Puri , H. S.,(1974) : Summary of Neontological and Paleontological classification of Ostracoda, Mitt Hammdurg. Zool.  Mus. Inst.,Band. 70, PP. 7-37 , Hambury . 
31-Hornibrook, N. De B., (1952) : Tertiary and Recent Marine Ostracoda of New Zealand. N. Z. Geol. Surv. Pal. Bull., 18, 82 pp., 18 pls. 
32-Jain, S. P., (1980) : Checklist of Ostracoda from India-1. Cennozoic Ostracoda (Marine) . Jour. of the Palaeont. Soc. Of Inia, 25, pp. 85-105 
33-James, G. A. and Wynd, J. G., (1965) : Stratigraphic nomenclature of Iranian Oil Consortium Agreent area, Bull. AAPG, 49(12) ,pp.2182-  2245 . 
34-Khalaf, S. K. (1982a) : Hermanites transversicostata sp., Stereo-Atlas of Ostracod Shells, 9(11), p.59-62. 
35-Khalaf, S.  K. , (1982b) : On Actinocythereis iraqensis sp. Nov Stereo-Atlas of Osrtacoda Shells, 9(9) , PP 51-54 . 
36-Khalaf, S. K. , (1984) : Middle Miocene Ostracoda from Northern Iraq, Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Hull, England. 
37-Khalaf, S. K. (1989) : The Ostracoda Genus Actinocythrereis from the Middle Miocene of Northern Iraq, Micropal, 8(2), pp.135-142.  
38-Khalaf, S. K. , (1993a) : Some new Ostracoda species of the genera Cytherella and Cytherelloidea from the M. Miocene of  North Iraq , Iraqi  Geol. Jour. 26 (3), PP. 175-195 . 
39-Khalaf, S. K. , (1993b) : The Ostracoda genus Callistocythere from the Middle Miocene of N. Iraq .Mu'tah Lil-Buhooth Wa Al-Dirasat, 8(3) ,    pp. 80-83, text fig. 9, pl. 1, fig. 1-6 . 
40-Khalaf, S. K. , (1993c) : The Ostracoda genus Dentokrithe from the Middle Miocene of N. Iraq, Iraqi Geol. Jour. , 26 (1), PP. 28-41. 
41-Khalaf, S. K. , (1994) : On Some Middle Miocene Ostracoda from North Iraq and their Palaeoecological significance, Iraqi Geol. Jour. Vol.  27, part 3 . 
42-Khalaf, S.K. (1998) : The Ostracdoe family loxoconchidae from the Middle Miocene of Northern Iraq. Iraqi Geo. Jour., 31(1), pp.83-89. 
43-Khalaf, S.K. (2000) : The Ostracoda genus Stigmatocythere Siddiqui from the Middle Miocene of North Iraq . Dept. of Geology , College of  Science , Mosul University , Mosul, Iraq . 
44-Khosla, S. C. , (1976) : The Ostracoda Genus Stigmatocythere Siddiqui in the Miocene (Burdigalian)  beds of district Jamnagar, Gujarat  Proc. VI India Coll. Micropal. Strat. pp.135-139, pl. 1. 
45-Khosla, S. C. , (1978) : Lower Miocene Ostracoda from Jamnagar and Probandar distrcts, Gujarta , India, Micropal. Vol. 24, No.3 , PP. 251- 290, Pls.1-6 .  
46-Khosla, S.C. and Haskins, C.W. (1980) : Dentokrithe, a new genus of Ostracoda, Microp. 24(3), pp.211-215, pl. 1. 
47-Khosla, S.G. and Nagori, M.L. (1989) : Ostracoda from the Quilon Beds (Lower Miocene), of Kerala. Memoirs Gol. Soc. of India Memoir, No.  14, pp.1-55. 
48-Kolloman, K. (1960) : Cytherideinae und Schulerideinae n. Subfam. (Ostracoda) aus dem Neogene des Ostlichen Osterreich, Mitt. Geol.    Ges. Wein, 51,pp 89-195, 5Abb. 4Tab. 21Taf 1kt, Wein. 
49-Kristic, N. (1979) : Ostracods of the Lower Miocene in the area between Shoms Abad and Rahniz, Iran. An. Geol. Pay Hellen hors series  fase, 11, pp.673-697, 3 pls. 
50-Lyubimova, P.S. and Guha, D.K. (1960) ; in: Lyubimova, P.S. and Guha, D.K. and Mohn, M. (1960): On Ostracoda of Jurassic and Tertiary  deposits from Kutch and Rajasthan (Jaisalmer) India. Geol. Min. Metall. Soc. India, Calcutta, Bull. No. 22 ,  pp.1-61 ,  PL.1-4. 
51-Malz, H., and Triebel, E., (1970) : Ostracoden aus dem Sannois Und jungeren Schichten des Mainzer Beckens, 2: Hemicyprideis n. G.  Senckenbergiana Lethaia, 51(1),pp. 1-47, 13 pls. 
52-Moore, R.C. and Pitrat, G. W., (1961): Treatise on invertebrate. Paleontology, Part Q Arthropoda 3 Crustacea Ostracoda . Geol. Soc. of  America and University of Kansas press, Lawrance Kansas, 442 p. 
53-Morkhoven, F. P. C. M. Van, (1963) : Post Paleozoic Ostracoda. Their Morphology, Taxonomy and Economic Use . Amsterdam, Elsevier  Public, Com. 2: 478pp.. General Description. 
54-Nazik, A. (1993) : Micropaleontological (Ostracoda and Foraminifera): investigation of Tertiary sequence of Darendes basin, Geol. Bull.  Turkey, Vol. 36, pp.13-36. 
55-Oertli, H. J., (1961) : Ostracodes du Langhian Type Riv. Italy, Paleont. Strat. 67(1) , pp.17-44. 
56-Puri, H. S., (1953) : Contribution to the study of the Miocene of the Florida Panhandle, Bull. Fla. St. Geol. Surv., pp.215-309, Pl. 5, 1-17,  Figs. 1-13 . 
57-Puri, H. S., (1955) : Hermanites , new name for Hermania Puri, 1954. Jour. Paleont., 29, 558 pp.  
58-Ruggieri, G., (1953) : Eta e faune di un terrazzo marino sulla costa ionica della Calabria. Giorn. Geol., Ser. 2A, 22, pp.19-168 . 
59-Ruggieri, G. (1962) : Gli Ostracodi marini del Tortoriano (Miocene medio-superiore) de Enna, nella Sicilia Centrale. Paleontogr. Italica, pisa,  Italy, 56 cn. Serv., U. 267, 68,pls. 1-7, text figs. 1-10 . 
60-Schneider, G. F., (1939) : Miocene Ostracods from the Crimean and Caucasus areas, Proble. Paleont., V. 5, Miocene Ostracod fauna from  the Crimea . 
61-Siddiqui, Q.A. (1971) : Early Tertiary Ostracoda of the family Trachyleberididae from West Pakistan. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. hist. (Geol.), Supple.  9, 98p., 42 pls. 
62-Stancheva, M., (1974) : Schneiderella, a new Ostracoda Genus from the Miocene in the Enxino-Caspian Basin, Geosci. And Man., 6, pp.27-  28, text fig. 2 . 
63-Stocklin, J., (1968) : Salt deposites of the Middle East, Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Pap. 88, pp.157-181 . 
64-Sylvester-Bradley, P. C. , (1948) : Some Ostracod Genotypes . Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 11, 13, pp.192-199 . 
65-Szczechura, J. and E. Abd-Alshafy, (1988) : Ostracodes and Foraminifera from the Middle Miocene of the Weastern Coast of the Gulf of  Suez, Egypt, Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 33(4), pp.273-342 . 
66-Tewari, B.S and Tandon, K.K. (1960) : Kutch microfauna Lower Tertiary Ostracoda. Proc. Nat. Inst. Sci. India, 26, Ser. B. No. 4, pp.148-167,  6 figs. 
67-Whatley, R. and Quan Hong, Z., (1998) : Evolutionary events of Cainozoic Ostracoda of Western Philippine Sea and Paleoceanographical    implications , Science in China, Servies D. , 41(3) ,pp. 282-289 .