Investigation into Radiation Doses to Patient During Diagnostic Imaging

Dastan Khalid

School of Science Education, University of Sulaimani 

Investigation in doses delivered to patient during an X-ray imaging is carried out. From the data obtained, the Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) is calculated and compared to the Reference Dose Levels of other countries (UK, Australia and the US). The results show 93% of chest examination was cases of overdose, while some other examinations had 8.5% overdose by more than 3 times. The results suggests that during X-ray imaging patients receive doses more than the reference level at the Sulaimani Hospital. 

Keywords: Radiation Dose, Dose Reference Level, Entrance Dose,Dose during diagnostic imaging. 

1-W. C. Black and H. G. Welch. “Advances in diagnostic imaging and  overestimations of disease prevalence and the benefit of  therapy”. N Engl J Med  1993 328: 1237-1243.  
2-R. Margulis and J. H. Sunshine. “Radiology at the turn of the Millennium”.  Radiology 2000. 214: 15 – 23.  
3-E. J. Hall and D. J. Brenner. “Cancer risks from diagnostic radiology”. The  British Journal of Radiology, 81 (2008), 362–378.  
4-B. F. Wall, G. M. Kendall, A. A. Edwards, S. Bouffler, C. R. Muirhead and J. R. Meara. “What are the risks from medical X-  rays and other low  dose radiation?” The British Journal of Radiology, 79 (2006), 285–294 
5-Reza Fazel, Harlan M. Krumholz, Yongfei Wang, Joseph S. Ross, Jersey Chen,  Henry H. Ting, Nilay D. Shah, Khurram Nasir,  Andrew J. Einstein  and  Brahmajee K. Nallamothu.“Exposure to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation from  Medical Imaging  Procedures”. N Engl J Med 2009;  361:849-57. 
6-Dieter F. Regulla and Heinrich Eder.“Patient Exposurein Medical X-Ray Imaginfin Europe”. Radiation Protection Dosimetry  (2005), Vol. 114,  Nos 1-3, pp. 11–25   
7-Eugenio Picano, Eliseo Vano, Richard Semelka and Dieter Regulla. The  American College of Radiology white paper on  radiation dose in  medicine:  deep impact on the practice of cardiovascular imaging Cardiovascular Ultrasound 2007, 5:37  
8-Amy Berrington de González, Sarah Darby. “Risk of cancer from diagnostic X rays: estimates for the UK and 14 other countries”. Lancet  2004; 363: 345–51  
9-E. J. Hall and D. J. Brenner. “Cancer risks from diagnostic radiology”. The British  Journal of Radiology, 81 (2008), 362–  378 
10-C. J. Martin, D. G. Sutton, P. F. Sharp. “Balancing patient dose and   image   quality”. Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 50 (1999) 1 – 19. 11-International Commission on Radiological Protection.1990 recommendations of the International Commission on  Radiological Protection.  ICRP publication no. 60. Oxford, England: Pergamon, 1991. 
12-International Commission on Radiological Protection. Radiation Protection and safety in medicine, Publication  73. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1996.  
13-K. Faulkner and R. H. Corbett. “Reference doses and quality in medical  imaging”. The British Journal of Radiology, 71 (1998), 1001-1002. 14-Diagnostic reference levels in medical imaging: review and additional advice. A web module produced by Committee 3 of the International   Commission on Radiologic Protection (ICRP)  
15-C. J. Martin. “20 years of patient dose studies: where should we go from  here?” The British Journal of Radiology, 78    (2005), 477–479 
16-K. Faulkner, D.A. Broadhead and R.M. Harrison. “Patient dosimetry  measurement methods”. Applied Radiation and  Isotopes 50 (1999) 113 –  123. 
17-C. J. Tung, C. Y. Cheng, T. C. Chao and H. Y. Tsai. “Determination of Entrance Skin Dose and Organ Doses for  Medical X ray  Examinations.” Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 85, Nos. 1–4, pp. 417–420 (1999).  
18-Robert A. Parry, Sharon A. Glaze and Benjamin R. Archer. “The  AAMP/RSNA Physics Tutorial for Residents. Typical Patient  Radiation  Doses in Diagnostic Radiology.” RadioGraphics 1999; 19: 1289 – 1302.  
19-Australian Government. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency. National Diagnostic Reference Level Fact Sheet. June   2011.  
20-B. F. Wall. “Implementation of DRLs in The UK.” Radiation Protection  Dosimetry (2005), Vol. 114, Nos 1-3, pp. 183–187