Water Quality Index (WQI) Of Some Wells Located In The Region Of Kani Goma And Kanasura In Sulaimani Governorate


 Nizar Y. HamaSalh

Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of Sulaimani 



Abstract
A Water Quality Index (WQI) is a useful statistical tool for simplifying, reporting and
interpreting complex information obtained from any body of water. A simple number given by
any WQI model explains the level of water contamination. This study is carried out by using
twelve ecological parameters in evaluating the quality of the ground water for drinking usage,
by choosing four sampling sites in Kanasura and Kanigoma district located in Sulaimani city
during 15 July, 2013 to 1 September 2013. The sampling was repeated after 15 days and the
present study is spread over a period of two months of summer season. The present study aimed
to calculate water quality index (WQI) by the analysis of twelve physico-chemical parameters on
the basis of Weighted Arithmetic Index in order to assess the suitability of water for drinking
purposes and other human uses. These physico-chemical parameters like Electrical
Conductivity (EC), Turbidity, pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+) , 
Total Hardness as CaCO3, Nitrate (NO3-_N), Nitrite, (NO2-_N), Sulfate (SO4 2-), Chloride(Cl-), 
and Phosphate (PO43-_P). The observed values of these physico-chemical parameters were compared 
with WHO standards. The results showed that water quality varied from good water
to poor water range.

Keywords: ground water, physico-chemical analysis, water quality index (WQI)



References
[1] Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Fourth Edition, World Health Organization
ISBN 978 92 4 154815 1. (2012).
[2] Bureau of Indian Standards, Specification for drinking water. IS: 10500, New Delhi,
India, (2012).
[3] United State EPA 816-F-09-004, May (2009),
http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/upload/mcl-2.pdf (Accessed 12 July 2013).
[4] Guide Manual: "Water and Waste Water", Central Pollution Control Board, New
Delhi.
http://www.cpcb.nic.in/upload/Latest/Latest_67_guidemanualw&wwanalysis.pdf
(Accessed 12 July 2013).
[5] Miller, W.W., Joung, H.M., Mahannah, C.N. and Garrett, J.R., "Identification of
Water Quality Difference in Nevada through Index Application", J. Environ Quality
15, p. 265-272. (1986).
[6] EPA "Drinking Water From Household Wells" (2002).
[7] E.O. Longe and M.R. Balogun, "Groundwater Quality Assessment near a Municipal
Landfill, Lagos, Nigeria", Research J. of Applied Sci, Engr’g and Technol, , 2(1):
39-44. (2010).
[8] Al-Manmi, D.A.M., "Chemical and Environmental Study of Groundwater in
Sulaimani City and its Outskirts". Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Coll. of Science, Uni. of
Baghdad, P.200. (2002).
[9] Mustafa, O.M., 2006. Impact of Sewage Wastewater on the Environment of Tanjero
River and its Basin within Sulaimaniyah city, NE Iraq. Unpub. M.Sc. Thesis, Coll. of
Science, Univ. of Baghdad, p. 144.
[10] Bartram, J. and Ballance, R., "Water Quality Monitoring. A Practical Guide to the
Design and Implementation of Fresh Water Quality Studies and Monitoring
Programs". UNEP/WHO, Chapman & Hall, P.136-190 (1996).
[11] Faure, G., "Principles and application of geochemistry" (2nd edition). Prentice Hall
Inc., USA, p.600 (1998).
[12] World Health Organization (WHO) “Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality”, 3rd
Edition,World Health Organization Geneva, (2004 ).
[13] Vasanthavigar ,M; Srinivasamoorthy ,K. ;Vijayaragavan,K. ;Ganthi,R. ;
Chidambaram,S; Anandhan,P. ;Manivannan,R.; Vasudevan,S. "Application of water
quality index for groundwater quality assessment ":Thirumanimuttar sub-basin,
Tamilnadu, India. Environ. Monit. Assess. DO110.1007/Springer 10661-009-1302-1,
(2010).
[14] World Health Organization (WHO) "Guidelines for drinking-water quality". 3rd
edition. Vol.1, Recommendations, Geneva, p.515, (2008).
[15] Nabi, A.O. " Limnological and bacteriological studies on some wells with in Hawler
city, Kurdistan region-Iraq". M.Sc. Thesis College of Science Univ. of Sallahaddin
(2005).
[16] Ali, L., A., "Algal studies in Sewage Water within Erbil City". M.Sc. Thesis, Coll. of
Science, Univ. of Salahaddin (2002).
[17] Goldman, C.R and A.j. Horne. "Limnology" McGraw-Hill Book Company, Japan,
p.464 (1983).
[18] Golterman, H.L"Chemistry". Chapter 2. In River Ecology, Ed.By B. A. whitton: 39-
80. Studied in Ecol. Vol. 2 Black well sci. publ. (1975).
[19] Eugene R. Weiner. "Applications of environmental chemistry: a practical guide for
environmental professionals". Lewis Publishers is an imprint of CRC Press LLC
p.222, 230 and 238 (2000).
[20] K. Sriniva samoorthy, S. Chidambaram, V.S. Sarma, M. Vasanthavigar, K.
Vijayaraghavan, R. Rajivgandhi, P. Anandhan and R. Manivannan, "Hydro
geochemical Characterization of Groundwater in Salem District of Tamilnadu, India",
Res. J. of Environ. and Earth Sci.. 1(2): 22-33 (2009).
[21] World Health Organization (WHO). "Guidelines for drinking-water quality "- 4th
edition. P.255 (2011).
[22] Davison, S."Principles and practice of medicine" 18th edition, UK, P.464 (1999).
[23] Yuce, G.; Pinarbasi, A.; Ozcelik, S. and Ugurlnoglu, D., "Soil and Water Pollution
Derived from Anthropogenic Activities in the Porsuk River Basin, Turkey". Environ
Geol, 49: 359-375 (2006).
[24] Mecozzi, Maureen. "Groundwater; Protecting Wisconsin’s Buried Treasure".
Madison, WI: Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Publ-WR-224-89 (1989).
[25] National Academy of Sciences Subcommittee (NASS), "Nitrate and Nitrite in
Drinking Water". National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., p 63 (1995).
[26] Trojan, M.D., Maloney, J.S., Stockinger, J.M., Eid, E.P. and Lahtinen, M.J., "Effect of
land use on groundwater quality in the Anoka Sand Plain aquifer of Minnesota".
Ground Water, Vol.41, No.4, p. 482 – 492 (2003).
[27] Benson, V.S., Van Leeuwen, J.A., Stryhn, H. and Somers, G.H., "Temporal analysis
of groundwater nitrate concentrations from wells in Prince Edward Island", Canada:
Application of a linear mixed effects model. Hydrogeology Jour., Vol.15, p. 1009 –
1019 (2007).
[28] Gülbahar, N. and Elhatip, H., "Estimation of Environmental Impacts on the Water
Quality of the Tahtali Dam Watershed in Izmir, Turkey". Environ Geol, 47: p. 725-728
(2005).