Allelopathic Potential of Aerial and Root Extracts of Alfalfa Against Germination and Seedling Related Traits of Four Weed Species.


Abdulsalam Abdulrahman Rasool
Field Crops Department, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimani

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17656/jzs.10297



Abstract:
In this study, we investigated the effect of aerial and root water extract of Alfalfa
(Medicago sativa) plant on seed germination and seedling growth of four weed species. This
study was carried out in the phytochemistry laboratory/Faculty of Agricultural Sciences/Sulaimani
University. Factorial experiment conducted in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3
replications, including five concentrations 2,4,6,8 and 10 g of aerial and root dry tissues of alfalfa
(Medicago sativa L.) plants per 100ml of MeOH 70% v/v, against germination and seedling growth
of four problematic weeds, which widely distributed in wheat fields, namely cephalaria (Cephalaria
syriaca L.), rye grass (Lolium perenne L.), bitter vetch (Lathyrus linifolius L.) and black mustard
(Brassica nigra L.). Results of experiment showed that extracts from dry tissue of aerial and root
parts of alfalfa greatly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of weeds at all
concentrations compared to water control. Root extracts had the higher allelopathic potential
toward imbibitions and germination of weeds compared to aerial extracts. Root extract reduced
imbibitions by 61, 54, 61, 54 % and caused germination inhibition I%, by 51, 37, 34, and 47 % in
cephalaria, rye grass, bitter vetch and black mustard respectively. Aerial extracts, significantly
reduced hypocotyls, radicle length and dry weight compared to root extracts. The reduction of
seedling traits of cephalaria, rye grass, bitter vetch and black mustard respectively due to aerial
extracts compared to water control were 52, 52, 32, 35% hypocotyls length reduction, 41, 44, 33,
48% radicle length reduced, 58, 61, 64, 76% hypocotyls dry weight losses and 60, 57, 58, 77% were
losses in radicle dry weight. Allelopathicity increased for aerial and root tissues with increase in
concentrations and the greatest inhibition was 80% equally for imbibitions and I%, which obtained
by 10g dry root tissue per 100 ml MeOH extract occurred in cephalaria, while 10 g dry aerial tissues
per 100 ml MeOH extracts shows the highest inhibition percentages of hypocotyls length by 78% in
rye grass, radicle length by 79% in cephalaria, hypocotyls dry weight and radicle dry weight by
90% both in black mustard.

Keywords: Allelopathy, Medicinal plants, Saponins, Phenolic compounds, Bio-herbicides,
problematic weeds.



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