"Bioaccumulation, Enrichment and Translocation Factors of some Heavy Metals in Typha Angustifolia and Phragmites Australis Species Growing along Qalyasan Stream in Sulaimani City /IKR "


Salih N. Majid, Ahmed I. Khwakaram, Ghafoor A. Mam Rasul, Zana H. Ahmed
Faculty of Agricultural Sciences/ University of Sulaimani




Abstract
The current study was undertaken to evaluate the mobility, bioaccumulation and transfer of the
heavy metals; Cr, Mn, Cu, and Pb from the wastewater of Qalyasan stream to roots tissues and from
roots tissues to shoots tissues by means of bioaccumulation factor (BAF), enrichment factor (EF) and
translocation factor (TF) in the macrophytes species of T. angustifolia and P. australis at two sites. The
analyzed macrophytes plant species were sampled along the streambank of Qalyasan in Sulaimani city.
Qalyasan stream is used as a source for irrigation water and also as a sink for the untreated urban and
industrial domestic's wastewater effluents. Domestic and industrial discharges are probably the most
two main sources for heavy metal contamination in the water of the stream. Our results showed that
concentrations of the studied metals in the root and shoot tissues of the macrophyte species were much
higher than those in the samples of wastewater from Qalyasan stream. Bioaccumulation factor and
enrichment factor values in both species were above 1. High variation among the values was noticed, this
indicating that these plants could be considered as trace metals accumulators and both have potential
for phytostabilization and phytoextraction. The ranking order of bioaccumulation factor by T.
angustifolia for the studied heavy metals was Mn> Cu > Pb > Cr, while by P. australis was Mn> Cu > Cr> Pb.
Translocation factor values for Cr, Mn and Cu was higher than 1 by P. australis, whereas by T.
angustifolia the values only for Cr and Mn were greater than 1, this is evident that the uptake and
accumulation of these metals were higher in the shoot tissues rather than root tissues of the investigated
macrophyte species.

Keywords: Bioaccumulation factor (BAF); Enrichment factor (EF); Qalyasan stream; Heavy
metals; Phytoremediation; Macrophytes; Pollution indicators; Translocation factor (TF).



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