Bread wheat varieties influenced by different levels of Nitrogen and phosphorous grown in calcareous soil


1 Mohammed Ali Hussain Al-Falah , 2 Mohammed-Sedqi. Salih. M. Dohuki
Dept. Field Crop, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Duhok, 2 Dept. Soil and water Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Duhok.




Abstract
Field trails were conducted at the field of the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry/
university of Duhok/ Semmel District- Duhok Governorate/ Kurdistan region/ Iraq,
which located in semi-arid zone, during seasons 2008-2009 and 2009-2010, to study the
effect of different levels of Nitrogen and Phosphorous (0.0, 60, 120, and 180) kg N. ha-1
,(0.0, 183.2, 229.0, and 274.8) kg P2O5. ha-1respectively, on leaf area (cm2), plant high
(cm), number of spikes. plant-1, number of grains. spike -1, 1000 grain weight, grain
yield (g). plant-1, of two varieties (Rezgary and Fateh) under rain feed conditions, in silty
clay texture soil (classified as Vertisols), characterized as high calcium carbonate, low
organic matter content and high pH value. The results showed highly significant effect
of year in all studied traits with exception number of grains per spike and the varieties
exhibited highly significant effect in plant height, leaf area, 1000 grain weight and grain
yield . plant-1. The interaction effect between Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and varieties,
shows highly significant effects for all traits except number of grains. spike-1
Alsointeraction effects between (Years × Variety × Nitrogen × Phosphorous) gave high
significant effects in all studied traits with exception of plant height and number of
grains. spike-1.

Key words: Bread wheat varieties, Nitrogen, Phosphorous levels, grain yield.



Reference

[1] Tony Winch,”Growing Food, A Guide to Food production, Spring, Hereford UK, (2006).
[2] Amon, I. Plant population and distribution pattems in crop production in dry regions. vol.
1. National Book Foundations. Islamabad, Pakistan, p.433 – 456, 359 – 360,
(1972).

[3] Bungard, R.A., Wingler A., Morton , J. D., Andrews , M. Aluminum can stimulate nitrate
and nitric reductase in the absence of nitrate in clematis vitaba . plant cell and
environment. 22.859-866, [doi:10.10461j. 1365-3040-1999-0046.X] ( 1999).
[4] Ayoub, M., Guertin, S., Lussier, S., Smith, D.L. Timing and levels of nitrogen fertility
effect on spring wheat. Crop Sci. : 34:748-750, (1994).

[5] Lathwal, O. P.,Tej . S., Sing T. Effect of irrigation and nitrogen levels on yield attribtion
and yield at wheat Haryana J. Agron., 8: 69-70, (1992).

[6] Das, D. K., Rao, T.V., Das, D. K.. Growth and spectral response of wheat as influence by
varying Nitogen levels and plant densities – Annual Agric –Res. 14:421-425,(1993).

[7] Geleto, T., Tanner, D-G ., Mamo, T., Gebeyenu G. Response of rain fed breal and durum
wheat to source level and timing of nitrogen fertilizer on two Ethiopian Vertisol
5. 1. Yeild and Yield Components Comm. in Soil Sci. and Plant Anlaysis : 26 :
1773 -1794,(1995).

[8] Singh, V. P. N., Uttam . S. K.. Response of wheat cultivativars to different N levels
under early sown conditions. Crop Res. 5:82 -86, (1992).

[9] Mengel, K., Ernest A. Kirkby, Hrald Kosegarten and Thomas Apple,.Principles of plant
nutrion.5th ed. Kluwer Academic publishers.DORDRECHT/ BOSTON/LONDON, (2001).

[10]Havlin, J. L., James, D. B. Samuel, L. T. Werner, L. N. Soil Fertility and
Fertilizers. (7th.Ed.). Pearson Prentice Hall.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey,
(2005).

[11] Chapman, H. D. and P. E. Pratt ,Methods of analysis for soils, plant
and water. Univ. Calif, Davis, Division of Agric. Sci. P: 309, (1961).
[12] Hesse, P. R. A Text book of soil analysis. Chemical publishing Co.,
Lus. New York, (1972).
[13] Soltanpour, P.N and P., Schwab. Anew soil test for simultaneous extraction
of macro and micro nutrient in alkaline soil. Communications in Soil
Sci.and Plant Anylysis: 8:195-207, (1977).
[14] Page, A. L. Methods of Soil analysis, Part 2. Amer. Soc. Agric. Pub. Madison,
Wisconson U.S.A, (1982).
[15] Ryan, J.; G. Estefan and A. Rashid. Soil and Plant Analysis Laboratory Manual.
ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria, and NARC, Islamabad, Pakistan. (2nd Ed.). P: 139-140, (2001).
[16] Thomas, H. The growth response to weather of stimulated vegetative swards of a single
genotype of lolium perenne. J. Agric. Sci. Cam. 84: 330-343, (1975).
[17] Steel, R-G. D., Torrie, T. H. Principle and procedures of statistics: Mc Graw Hill Inc.,
New York, USA, (1984).
[18] Soil Survey Staff, Key to Soil Taxonomy, USDA-NRCS,(10th. Ed.), (2006).