Assessment of the Microbial Quality of Five Types of Iraqi Fresh Fish in Sulaimania markets


1 Zaid Kh. Khidhir, 2 Bahrouz M. A. Jaff , 3 Hatem H. Saleh
Department of Animal production, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences, University of Sulaimani, 2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Sulaimani, 3 Department of Animal resources, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad





Abstract:
The aim of this study to assess the quality of five types of local, most heavily
traded and widespread in Sulaimani, fresh fish including Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon
idella), Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Bizz
(Barbus esocinus) and Shabbout (Barbas grypus), for the period from 1st February 2010
to 1st October 2010. Analyses were achieved on a sample of twelve fishes for each type;
their weight ranged 2-3Kg. different standard inspection tests were applied.
Microbiology evaluation: total plate count (TPC), Psychrophilic bacterial count and
Psychrotrophic counts were within the acceptable limits for all types (TPC valued 8.37
For Bizz to 25.80×105 Cfu/g for Silver carp, Psychrophils valued 6.83 for Bizz to 63.91
×105 Cfu/g for silver carp and Psychrotrophs valued 7.7 for Bizz to 20.70×105 Cfu/g for
Silver carp) but they varied in count. Wild inhabitant showed significantly better
microbiology evaluation results than farmed among farmable types. Bizz and Shabbout
have been sold from licensed markets had better significantly than those unlicensed
markets. Pseudomonas spp. was detected in all five types in a range of 45.75 for
Shabbout to 59.16 ×102 Cfu/g for silver carp with insignificant differences. Randomly
selected Pseudomonas colonies revealed isolation of P.aeruginosa and P.putida.

Key word: local fresh fish; microbiology; quality; Sulaimani.



References:

[1] IFST, "Shelf life of foods – guidelines for its determination and prediction" London:
Institute of Food Science and Technology, (1993).
[2] L. Gram, and H.H. Huss, "Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products" Int. J.
Food Microbiology, 33 (1), pp. 121-137, (1996).
[3] H.H. Huss, "Quality and Quality Changes in Fresh Fish" FAO Fisheries Technical
Paper 348. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. (1995).
[4] L. Gram, C. Wedell-Neergaard, and H.H. Huss, "The bacteriology of fresh and
spoiling Lake Victorian Nile perch (Lates niloticus) " Int. J. Food Microbiol., 10, pp.
303-316, (1990).
[5] J. J. Connell, "Control of fish Quality" (3rd Ed). Oxford: Fishing News Books.
(1990).
[6] H. H. Huss, "Assurance of seafood Quality" Rome: FAO Fisheries Technical Paper,
No.334, (1994).
[7] P. Dalgaard, "Fresh and lightly preserved seafood". In: C.M.D Man and A.A. Jone,
(Eds.)Shelf life Evaluation of Foods. 2nd edition. Aspen Publishing Inc. Maryland,
USA, pp110-139, (2000).
[8] USDA/FSIS, "United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety And Inspection
Service" Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook, 3rd Ed., Washington, DC: USDA–
FSIS, (1998).
[9] K.M.J. Swanson, F.F. Busta, E.H. Peterson, and M.G.Johnson, "Colony count
methods" In: D. Vanderzant and D.F. Splittstoesser (Eds). Compendium of methods
for the microbiological examination of foods. pp. 75–95.American Public Health
Association (APHA), Washington, D.C., (1992).
[10] APHA "Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of
Foods" 2nd ed. APHA. Washington D.C., (1984).
[11] R. G. D. Steel, Torrie, J. H. and Dickey, D. A. "Principles and procedures of
statistics" A biometrical approach. 3rd ed. McGraw Hill Book Company Inc, New
York, USA, (1996).
[12] ICMSF "International Commission on Microbiological specifications for Food
of the International Union of Microbiological Societies" Microorganisms in Food.
Sampling for microbiological analysis principles and Specific Application, 2nd Ed.,
University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada, (1986).
[13] Y. W. Huang, and C. K. Leung, "Microbiological assessment of channel
catfish grown in cage and pond culture" Food Microbiology, 10, pp.187- 195, (1993).
[14] I.Q.S. Iraqi standard, "Microbiological limits in food" part 4. Microbiological
limits in meat and meat products .p:6, (2006).
[15] H. R. Al–Sheriffi, M. J. Hindi, and S. M. H. Al – Shatty, "Early bacterial
content of common Carp (Cyprinus carpio ) and Sabour (Tenualosa ilisha ) caught
from Basrah" Marina Mesopotamica, 17 (1), pp. 23 – 30, (2002).
[16] M. J. H. Salh, " Nutritive value of flesh Meat for five Species fish in Dukan
Lake" Master of Science in Animal science/ Fish Technology. College of Agriculture,
Salahadin University.(in Arabic). (2009).
[17] R. K. Koussemon, K. Tano, M. Traore, and A. Kamenan, "Assessing the
Microbiological Quality and Conditions of Sales of Cyprinus carpio, Arius sp. and
Cybium tritor: Three Fish Species Mostly Consumed in Cote D'ivoire" J. of Fisheries
Int. 3 (1), pp.1-6, (2008).
[18] O. P. Fraser, and S. Sumar, " Compositional change and spoilage in fish )part
II) microbiological induced deterioration" Nutrition & Food Science, 98(6), pp.325–
329, (1998).
[19] V.L. Brownsell, C.J. Griffith, and E. Jones, "Applied Science for Food
Studies" Longman Scientific and Technical, Hong Kong. (1989).
[20] Chen, H.C. and Chai, T. Micro flora of drainage from ice in fishing vessel fish
holds”, Applied Environmental Microbiology, 43, 1360-1365. (1982).
[21] D.R. Ward, and N.J. Baj, "Factors affecting microbiological quality of
seafoods" Food Technology. 42, pp. 85-9,(1988).
[22] M. Suhendan, E. Nuray, Ü. S. Didem, and T. Yasmin, "Effect of Psychrophilic
bacteria to estimated quality" J. of Muscle Foods. 18, pp. 120–128, (2007).
[23] R. Scherer, P. R. Augusti, V. C. Bochi, C. Steffens, L. L. M. Fries, and A. P.
Daniel, "Chemical and microbiological quality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon
idella) slaughtered by different methods" Food Chemistry. 99, pp. 136–142, (2006).
[24] L. Gram, J.O. Oundo, and J. Bon, "Storage life of Nile perch (Lates niloticus)
in relation to temperature and initial load" Trop. Sci., 29, pp.221-236, (1989).
[25] K. Bojanic, L. Kozacinski, I. Filipovic, Ž. Cvrtila, N. Zdolec, and B. Njari,
" Quality of sea bass meat during storage on ice" Vol. XI, (2009).
[26] G. Olafsdottir, H. Lauzon, E. Martinsdottir, J. Oehlenschläger, and K.
Kristbergsson, " Evaluation of shelf life of super chilled cod (Gadus morhua) fillets
and influence of temperature fluctuations on microbial and chemical quality
indicators" J. Food Sci. 71 (2), pp. 97-109, (2006).
[27] V. Papsdopoulos, I. Chouliara, A., Badeka, N. Savvaidis, and M.G.
Kontominas, " Effect of gutting on microbiological, chemical and sensory properties
of aquaculture seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) stored in ice" Food Microbiology. 20,
pp. 411–420, (2003).
[28] G.J. Vasconcelos, and R.G. Swartz, "Survival of bacteria in seawater using
diffusion chamber apparatus in situ" Appl. Envir. Microbiol. 31, pp. 913-20, (1976).
[29] S. Kumaran, B. Deivasigamani, K. M. Alagappan, M. Sakthivel, and S. Guru
Prasad, "Isolation and characterization of Pseudomonas sp. KUMS3 from Asian sea
bass (Lates calcarifer) with fin rot" World J. of Microbiology and Biotechnology.
26(2), pp. 359-363, (2010).
[30] M. Begum, A. Abu Ahmed, M. Das, and S. Parveen, "A Comparative
Microbiological Assessment of Five Types of Selected Fishes Collected from Two
Different Markets"Advan. Biol. Res. 4 (5), pp. 259-265, (2010).
[31] I. Altinok, S. Kayis, and E. Capkin, " Pseudomonas putida infection in
rainbow trout" Aquaculture. 261(3), pp. 850-855, (2006).
[32] L. Gram, and P. Dalgaard, "Fish spoilage bacteria - problems and solutions"
Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 13, pp. 262–266, (2002).