Effect of Fertilizer type and Plant Density on Flavonoligans Yield of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L.) under Rainfed and Irrigated Conditions


1 A. A. Askari, 2 Sh. O. Baban , 3 R. M. Ahmed
1,3 Field Crops, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimani, 2 College of Education, Salahaddin University





Abstracts:
The present study was conducted at Bazian location during two winter seasons of 2010- 2011
and 2011- 2012 A factorial experiment was conducted using Completely Randomized Block Design
(CRBD) with three replications. The study included two different irrigation; Rainfed and Irrigated,
combined with three fertilization applications; No fertilization Chemical fertilization and Organic
fertilization and two different plant densities;8 16 plant m-2. The most important results of the
average of both seasons can be summarized as follows:- Fruit samples were analyzed qualitatively
and quantitatively by HPLC for their contents of flavonolignans. Data show that the treatment of
rainfed exhibited superior values for the silychristin B and isosilybin B, while irrigated treatment
produced maximum values for the silybin A and weight of flavonolignans in fruits. The treatment of
no fertilization showed its superiority for the silychristin A, silychristin B, silydianin, isosilybin A
and total flavonolignans, while organic fertilization produced maximum values for the silybin A and
weight of flavonolignans in fruits. The effect of 8 plant m-2 exhibited maximum values for the silybin
A, silybin B, isosilybin A and total flavonolignans, while 16 plant m-2 produced maximum value for
the weight of flavonolignans in fruits. Interaction between rainfed and no fertilization increased the
amount of silychristin B, silydianin, silybin B, isosilybin A, isosilybin B and total flavonolignans,
while interaction of irrigated and organic fertilization produced maximum values for the weight of
flavonolignans in fruits. The treatment of irrigated and 16 plant m-2 exhibited superior value for the
weight of flavonolignans in fruits. No fertilization and 8 plant m-2 treatment interactions produced
maximum value for the isosilybin A, while in case of interaction between rainfed, no fertilization
and 8 plant m-2 treatments exhibited maximum value for the isosilybin A. The treatment
interactions of organic fertilization and 8 plant m-2 produced maximum values for the weight 
of flavonolignans in fruits.

Keywords: medicinal plant, Milk thistle, fertilization, irrigation, plant density,
flavonolignans.



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