Measurement of ²²² Rn Concentrations in the Air of Qaysery Naqeeb Bazaar Located in Sulaimani Governorate of Kurdistan Region-Iraq


Kamal O. Abdullah1 , Ali H. Ahmed2 & Salahaddin A. Ahmed3

1 Faculty of Science and Science Education- University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani-Iraq,
2 College of Science- Salahaddin University,  Erbil –Iraq
3 Faculty of Science and Science Education- University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani -Iraq.


Abstract
In this study the level of 222Rn concentration at 35 positions in air of the big ancient
famous bazaar (Qaysery Naqeeb) which contains 110 shops and located in the center of
Sulaimani city have been assessed. During the winter and summer seasons of 2014,
222Rn
concentrations have been measured by using (CR-39) solid state nuclear detector. In
winter, the maximum and minimum value
s of 222Rn concentration were
(206.901±10.958) Bq/m
and (44.978±5.109) Bq/mrespectively, with an average value
of (132.849± 8.780)Bq/m
; while in summer the maximum and minimum values of 222Rn
concentrations were (255.476± 25.809) Bq/m
and (99.852± 6.306) Bq/m,respectively,
with an average value of (158.215± 12.578)Bq/m
, this difference reveals the role of
higher temperature and humidity rates in the variation of radon concentrations were high
radon concentrations corresponds to high temperature and low humidity rates. In several
positions the obtained values were nearly within the acceptable range of radon level
recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the limit
recommended by World Health Organization (WHO), but in the most other positions
these limits were exceeded due to the structures of material building and lack of
ventilation. The effect of temperature on radon concentration was also observed.
 

Key Words : Radon, SSNTD, CR-39, Air, Activity Concentraion.               



References
[1] Mansoor H.H. ”Measurement of indoor radon levels in Erbil capital by using SSNTD”,
Radiation Measurement, 40 ; 544-547, (2005).
[2] United Nation Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation, Sources and Effects of
Ionizing Radiation, (UNSCEAR 2000).(http://www.unscear.org)
[3] Banman A. et al. ”Natural Radiation Environment”. Willy R. Ltd, New Delhi, p.401 (1982).
[4] Lubin J. H.”Studies of radon and lung cancer in north America and China” Radiation Protection
Dosimetry, Vol. 104: No. 4: 315-319; (2003).

[5] Omer N.”Electrochemical Etching”, Msc. Dissertation, University of Mousl (1999).
[6] Radomir I. and Saeed A. (2003), Ch. 3,” Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors” in Handbook of
Radioactivity Analysis, 2nd Edition Canberra Industries , Inc.USA. pp(179- 230)
[7]Muhammed A. (1993),” Chemical Plasticity”, University of Mousl.
[8] Manson B. et al. (1981),” Nuclear Chemical Engineering”, 2nd Edition, USA.
[9] Ahmed K. M. and Wafae A. S. “ Study of Rn and U concentrations in some Iraqi Materials”
Journal of Education and Science, 43; 3-12; (2000).
[10] Sroor A. et al,”Natural Radioactivity and Rn Exhalation rate of soil in Southern Egypt”,
Applied Radiation and Isotops, 55; 873-879; (2001).
[11] Kannan V. et al. “ Distribution of Natural and Anthropogenic Radionulides in Soil and Beach
Sand Samples of Kalpakkam (India) using γ-ray spectroscopy”, Applied Radiation and Isotops,
57(1); 109-119; (2002).
[12] International Commission on Radiological Protection,” Protection against 222Rn at home and
work”, publication 65, Ann of International Commission on Radiological Protection
253,(1993).
[13]WHO Handbook on Indoor Radon, World Health Organization (2009).
[14] Kamal O. Abdullah and Raseed M.Yousuf,” Natural Radioactivity Measurements of soil and
water in Sulaimani Governorate”, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Sulaimani(2013).
[15] E. Stranden et al.,” The influence of Moisture and Temperature on Radon Exhalation “,
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 7(1-4); 55-58, (1984).
[16] Arif Mahmood et al.,” Measurement of radon concentration and exhalation rate in some mud
houses of district Lahore, Pakistan” Indoor and Built Environment, vol. 23 no. 6, 774-784,
(October -2014).
[17] Akbari K. et al. “ Influence of indoor air conditions on radon concentration in a detached
house”, Environmental Radioactivity, 73, 116-166, (2013).
[18] Environmental Protection Agency EPA, "Assessment of risks from radon in homes" Office of
Radiation and Indoor Air United States Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC 20460, (2003)