Issues‎ > ‎vol17n3‎ > ‎

Sulfate content in some water systems within Erbil City/KRG by using turbidimetric and titrimetric methods.

Yahya Ahmed Shekha

Department of Environmental Science, College of Science, Salahaddin University

This study was conducted on two water bodies; three sites were selected on Erbil
wastewater channel and four sites on Greater Zab river. Water samples were collected at
regular monthly interval periods beginning at July 2012 to April 2013. Sulfate
concentration was determined by EDTA titrimetric and barium sulfate procedures in
order to compare the results obtained by both methods. The mean values of sulfate
concentration in Greater Zab river was 74.98 and 1205.9 mg.l-1 for EDTA titrimetric and
barium sulfate methods respectively, while for Erbil wastewater channel samples sulfate
concentration mean values was 109.46 and 1240.5 mg.l-1 for EDTA titrimetric and
barium sulfate methods respectively. As a mean values sulfate concentration is ten times
more by barium sulfate method than other method. From standard error values it appears
that EDTA titrimetric method is more accurate and suitable for sulfate determination
than other method which is quick, simple and easy.

Key Words: Sulfate determination, turbidimetric method, EDTA titrimetric method, Greater Zab river, Erbil wastewater channel


[1]Rump, H.H. “Laboratory manual for the examination of water, wastewater and soil ˮ 3rd.Ed. Germany, Wiely-VCH
Verlag Publication, 225pp. (1999).
[2]Bartram, J. and Balance, R. “Water quality monitoringˮ: A practical guide to the design and implementation of
freshwater quality studies and monitoring programmes. United Kingdom, E and FN Spon, Chapman and Hall,
383pp. (1996).
[3]Staden, J.F. ʺFlow- injection analysis of substances in waterʺ, Part I. Anions. Acritical review, Water SA, Vol.(13),
No.4, pp.197-208. (1987).
[4]Zarate, N.; Perez- Olmos, R. and Freire dos Reis, B. ʺTurbidimetric determination of sulfate in rainwater employing
a LED based photometer and multicommuted flow analysis system with In- line preconcentrationʺ, Journal of
Braz. Chem. Soc., Vol.(22), No.6, pp.1009- 1014. (2011).
[5]Mustafa, B.Y. and Sabir, S. ʺReuse of Erbil city sewage for irrigation purposesʺ, Sci. Conf. of Water-Erbil. J.
Brayeti-Cent., Vol. (18), pp.303-317. (2001).
[6]Shekha, Y.A. ʺMultivariate statistical characterization of water quality analysis for Erbil wastewater channelʺ,
Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, Vol.(5), Issue 6, pp.18- 26. (2013).
[7]American Public Health association (A.P.H.A.). “Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewaterˮ.
20th.Ed. A.P.H.A., 1015 Fifteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC. 20005-2605. (1998).
[8]Gupta, V. “SPSS for Beginnersˮ. India, VJ Books Inc. Publishers. (1999).
[9]Lak, M.H.H. ʺEnvironmental study of Arab-kand wastewater channel in Erbil governorate, Kurdistan region.Iraqʺ,
M.Sc. Thesis., Univ. of Salahaddin –Erbil, Iraq. (2007).
[10]World Health Organization (WHO). “Guidelines for drinking water qualityˮ. 4th Ed, NML. Classification: WA 675. (2011).
[11]Iraqi standards. “Environmental legislationˮ Iraqi Directorate for Environment Protection and Improvement,
Ministry of Health, Baghdad-Iraq. (1986).
[12]Ayers, R. S. and Westcot, D. W. “Water Quality for Agricultureˮ Irrigation and Drainage Paper No.29, revision 1,
FAO, Rome, pp. (1994).