Some heavy Metal pollution investigation in Sulaimani province groundwater

Ali Bawasheakh Ahmad , Akram. O. Esmail

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sulaimani, 2 College of Agriculture, Salahaddin University

The paper aims to go into the impact of some heavy metal contamination in the
Sulaimani province groundwater for irrigation purpose. Water samples were collected
from (36) locations in the study area that not the same and the heavy metals such as
(Iron, Zinc, Copper and Manganese) were finding out by using Atomic Absorption
Spectrophotometer. Heavy metal contamination appraisal in ground water required
cognition of pre anthropogenic metal concentrations to act as a reference against which
measured values can be compared. Groundwater taint by heavy metal was
accomplished using Enrichment Factor (EF), Metal Contamination Index (MCI),
Contamination Factor (CF), Pollution Index (PI), Contamination degree (Cd),
modified Contamination Degree (mCd), Pollution load Index (PLI) and Index of geo
accumulation (Igeo). Established on the above exponents, the results indicate the study
groundwater resources to be very low degree of contamination.

Key Words: Trace elements, Heavy metals, Anthropogenic, Contamination, Enrichment Factor (EF), Contamination Factor (CF), Contamination degree (Cd), Pollution load Index (PLI) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo)


[1] Nordstrom, D.K., Ball, J.W., Donahoe, R.J. and Whittemore D. Groundwater chemistry and water rock interactions
at Stripa. Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 53: 1727-1740. doi: 10.1016/0016-7037(89)90294-9, (1989).
[2] Saxena, V. and Ahmed S. Dissolution of fluoride in groundwater: A water-rock interaction study. Environmental
Geology, 40: 1084-1087. doi: 10.1007/s002540100290, (2001).
[3] De Caritat, P., Kirste, D., Carr, G. and McCulloch M. Groundwater in the Broken Hill region, Australia:
Recognizing interaction with bedrock and mineralization using S, Sr and Pb isotopes. Applied Geochemistry, 20:
767-787. doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2004.11.003, (2005).
[4] Dehnavi, A.G., Sarikhani, R. and Nagaraju D. Hydro geochemical and rock water interaction studies in East of
Kurdistan, N-W of Iran. International Journal Environmental Science Research, 1: 16-22, (2011).
[5] Valavanidis, A. and Vlachogianni, T. Metal pollution in ecosystem, eco toxicology studies & risk assessment in the
marine environment. Department of Chemistry, University of Athens University Campus Zografou, 15784 Athens,
Greece, (2010).
[6] Morrisey, D. J., Turner, S. J., Mills, G. N., Williamson, R. B. and Wise, B. E. Factor affecting the distribution of
benthic macro fauna in estuaries contaminated by urban runoff. Marine Environmental Research, 55 (2): 113-136,
[7] Banat, K. M., Howari, F. M. and Al-Hamada, A. A. Heavy Metals in Urban Soils of Central Jordan: Should We
Worry about Their Environmental Risks? Environmental Research, 97: 258–273, (2005).
[8] Chakra borty, R., Zaman, S., Mukhopadhyay, N., Banerjee, K., and Mitra, A. Seasonal variation of Zn, Cu and Pb in
the estuarine stretch of west Bengal. Indian Journal of Marine Science, 38 (1): 104-109, (2009).
[9] APHA American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Pollution Control
Federation. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater, 17th ed., Washington, DC, American
Public Health Association, (1989).
[10] Martin, J.M., and Meybeck, M. Elemental mass balance of materials carried by major world rivers. Marine
Chemistry, 7: 173-206, (1979).
[11] Simex, S.A., and Helz, G.R. Regional geochemistry of trace elements in Checapeake Bay. Environmental
Geology, 3: 315- 323, (1981).
[12] Forstner U, and Wittmann, G.T.W. Metal Pollution in Aquatic Environment. New York: Springer-Verlag, (1983).
[13] Deely, J.M. and Fergusson, J.E. Heavy metal and organic matter concentrations and distributions in dated
sediments of a small estuary adjacent to a small urban area. The Science of the Total Environment, 153(2): 97 111,(1994).
[14] Sutherland, R.A. Bed sediment-associated trace metals in an urban stream, Oahu, Hawaii. Environmental Geology,
39(6): 611–627, (2000).
[15] Meybeck, M., Horowitz, A. J., and Grosbois, C. The geo-chemistry of Seine River Basin particulate matter:
Distribution of an integrated metal pollution index Science Total Environment, 328: 219–236, (2004).
[16] Hakanson, L. Ecological Risk Index for Aquatic Pollution Control. A Sediment logical Approach. Water
Research, 14: 975-1001, (1980).
[17] Mmolawa, K. B., Likuku A. S. and Gaboutleeloe G. K. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils along
majorroadside areas in Botswana. African Journal Environmental Science and Technology, 5(3): 186-196, (2011).

[18] AL Omran, A.M., EL- Maghraby., S.E., Nadeem, M.E.A., EL- Eter, A.M. and EL-Qahtani, S.M.I. Impact of

Cement Dust on Some Soil Properties Around the Cement Factory in Al-Hasa Oasis Saudi Arabia. American-
Eurasian Journal Agriculture and Environmental Science, 11(6):840-846, (2011).

[19] Ahdy, H. H. H. and Khaled, A. Heavy Metals Contamination in Sediments of the Western Part of the Egyptian
Mediterranean Sea. Australian Journal Basic and Applied Science, 3: 3330-3336, (2009).
[20] Abrahim, G. M. S. Holocene sediments of Tamaki Estuary: Characterization and impact of recent human activity
on an urban estuary in Auckland, New Zealand, PhD Thesis University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand), p.
361, (2005).
[21] Usero J.A. Garcia, J. Fraidias Calidad de las aguas y sedimentos del Litoral Andaluz, in: Junta de Andalicia,
Consejeria del Medio Ambiente, Sevilla, (Editorial), p 164, (2000).
[22] Müller, G. Index of Geo accumulation in the Sediments of the Rhine River. Geo journal, 2, 108-118, (1969).
[23] Huu, H. H., Rudy S. and An Van Damme. Distribution and contamination status of heavy metals in estuarine
sediments near Cau Ong harbor, Ha Long Bay, Vietnam. Geology Belgica 13(1-2): 37 - 47, (2010).

[24] Zhang, J. and Liu, C. L. Riverine composition and estuarine geochemistry of particulate metals in China-
Weathering features, anthropogenic impact and chemical fluxes. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science Journal 54:1051 -1070 p, (2002).
[25] Harikumar, P. S.; Nasir, U. P. and Mujeebu Rahma, M. P. Distribution of heavy metals in the core sediments of a
tropical wetland system. International Journal Environmental Science Technology 6 (2): 225-232p, (2009).