Effect of chelated iron, iron filings and sulfur on vegetative, yield and fruit characteristics of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) Cv. Cadonca


Shukri H. Salih Bani

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Duhok





Abstract
The present study was conducted during growing season 2013-2014, to investigate the
effects of chelated iron (0, 50 and 100mg Fe l-1), iron filings (0 and 10g plant-1) and agricultural
sulfur (0 and 10g S plant-1) on vegetative, yield and fruit characteristics of strawberry Cadonca
cultivar. The results showed that the foliar spray with chelated iron (50 and 100mg Fe l-1) and
soil treatment with iron filings (10g plant-1) caused significant increases in each of leaf iron
content, leaf total chlorophyll content, leaf dry matter percentage, plant yield, and fruit total
soluble solids. Soil treatment with agriculture sulfur (10g S plant-1) also caused increases in
each of leaf iron content, leaf total chlorophyll content, leaf dry matter percentage, plant yield,
and fruit total acidity but did not reach to significant levels.
The effect of interactions between each of iron filings + sulfur, iron filings +cheleted iron
and sulfur + chelated iron were significant with the most of parameters. The interaction
between 10g iron filings plant-1 + 10g S plant -1, 10g iron filings plant-1+100mg chelated iron l-1
and 10g S plant -1 + 100mg chelated iron l-1 significantly increased the most studied
parameters. In respect of interaction of the three studied factors, the interaction of 10g iron
filings plant-1 + 10g S plant-1 +100mg chelated iron l-1 was the best thrice interaction in
promoting the most studied characteristics.

Key Words: Strawberry, chelated iron, iron filings, sulfur.



Reverences

[1] Kader, J. SH. Effect of Plant distances and mode protected cultivation on growth , yield and quality of two
varieties strawberry ( Regina and Kaiser ). MSc. Thesis, Hort. / Fruit / college. Agric./ Sulaimani
University. 2008.

[2] Muhamed Salih, L. M. SH. The effect of spraying seaweed extract (Matrix-5) on some vegetative and root growth
of two strawberry varieties. High Diploma Thesis. College of Agric. Salahaddin Univ. Iraq. 2010. (In
Arabic).

[3] Singh, A. Fruit Physiology and Production. Kalyani Publishers-new Delhi-India. 2003.
[4] Havlin, L. L.; Beaton J. D.; Tisdale S. L. and Nelson W. L. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers. 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. 2005.

[5] Marschner, H. Functions of Mineral Nutrients: micronutrients. Iron. In Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants; Academic Press: Cambridge, UK. p. 313-324. 1995.

[6] Álvarez-Fernández, A.; Paniagua P.; Abadía, J. and Abadía A. Effects of Fe deficiency chlorosis on yield and fruit

[7] Álvarez-Fernández, A.; Abadía J. and Abadía A. Iron deficiency, fruit yield and quality. In Iron Nutrition in Plants
and Rizospheric microorganisms. Eds. L. L. Barton and J. Abadía. pp. 85-101, Springer, Dordrecht, the
Netherlands. ISBN-101-4020-4742-8. 2006.

[8] Álvarez-Fernández, A.; García-Laviña P.; Fidalgo J.; Abadía J. and Abadía A. Foliar fertilization to control iron chlorosis in pear (Pyrus communis L.) trees. Plant and Soil, 263: 5-15. 2004.

[9] Abadía, J. A., Álvarez-Fernández, A., Morales, F., Sanz M., and Abadía, A." Correction of iron chlorosis by foliar sprays " Acta Hort. 594, ISHS .2002.

[10] Fernández V and Ebert G. Foliar iron fertilization- a critical review. J. Plant Nutr. 28, 2113–2124. 2005.
[11] Fernández, V.; Ebert G. and Winkelmann G. The use of microbial siderophores for foliar iron application studies. Plant Soil, 27(2): 245-252. 2005.

[12] Erdal, I. K., Kahraman, and Lthan K. Effect of Foliar Iron Applications at Different Growth Stage on Iron and

Some Nutrient Concentrations in Strawberry Cultivars. Turk. Agric. For. 28: 421-427. 2004.

[13] Dawood, Z. A. Effect of concentrations and application dates of Fe-EDTA on growth and yield of strawberry. Cv. Hapil. Meso. J. Agric. 36(2):4-10. 2008. (In Arabic).

[14] Berglen, T. F. B. Sulfur in the atmosphere-studies of processes, distribution and changes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Dep. of Geosciences, Univ. of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. 2006.

[15] Hogan, G. D. and Rennenberg H. Role and Effect of Sulfur in Tree Biology. In: Maynard DG (ed.), Sulfur in the
Environment. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp.173–217. (C. F. Hawkesford, and De Kok (2007). 1998.
[16] Tausz, M.; Weidner W.; Wonisch A.; De Kok L. J. and Grill D. Uptake and distribution of 35S-sulfate in needles
and roots of spruce seedlings as affected by exposure to SO2 and H2S. Environ. Exp. Bot. 50: 211–220.
2003.

[17] Santos, B. M. Effects of Pre-Plant Nitrogen and Sulfur Fertilizer Sources on Strawberry. J. Hort. Technology.20(1): 193-196. 2010.

[18] Roger Mead, R. N. C. and Hasted A. M. Statistical methods in agriculture and experimental biology. ChampanHall, CRC, ACRC Press Co., Washington, DC. 2003.

[19] SAS Institute, Inc. Statistical Analysis System Ver. 9.0. SAS institute Inc., Cary, NC. USA. 2002.
[20] Ranganna, S. Manual of Analysis of Fruit and Vegetable Products. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi. 1977.

[21] Sourour, M. M. Response of “Anna” apple trees to different methods and forms of iron applications. Alex. J. Agric. Res. 37 (2): 191-204. 1992.

[22] Joslyn, M. A. Methods in Food Analysis (2). Acad. Press, N. Y. London. 1970.
[23] Bhargava, B. S. and Raghupathi H. B. Analysis of Plant Materrials for Macro and Micronutrients. P: 49-82. In
Tandon, H. L. S. (edt.) Methods of Analysis of Soils, Plants, Waters, and Fertilizers. Binng Printers L-14,
Lajpat. Nagar New Delhi, 110024. 1999.

[24] Kessel, C. Strawberry Diagnostic Workshops: Nutrition. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affaies. Pages 1-7. 2006.

[25] Bani, Sh. A.S. Effect of iron, sulfur, ascorbic acid and their interactions on the vegetative growth, yield and fruit
quality of peach trees cv. Dixired. Ph.D. Dissertation. Duhok Univ. Kurdistan Region. Iraq. 2012.
[26] Al-Aa’reji, J. M.; Duhoky M.S. and Mayi A. A. T. Effect of foliar spray with iron and GA3 on yield and quality of apple fruits cv. Starking Delicious. Meso. J. Agric. 38(3): 4-11. 2010. (In Arabic).

[27] Al-Taai, A. A. H.; Al-Khafaji M. A. and Selman M. A. The effect of nitrogen, iron and zinc application on the
productivity of some citrus species. B- Clemanatina mandarin (Citrus reticulate). Iraqi. J. Agri. Sci. 25(2):
122-133. 1994. (In Arabic).
[28] AL-Kwami, S. M. J.; Salman A. M. and Salman M. A. Effect of spraying GA3, N, Zn, and Fe on physical and
chemical properties of Fig fruits Ficus carica L. cvs. Aswad Diala. Iraqi. J. Agri. Sci. 33(4): 71-76. 2002.
(In Arabic).
[29] Mukherji, S. and Ghosh A. K. Plant Physiology. New Central Book Agency (p) Ltd. 8/1 Chintamoni Das Land,Kolkata/India. 2005.
[30] Hurley, A. K.; Walser R. H.; Dais T. D. and Barney D.L. Net photosynthesis, chlorophyll, and foliar iron in apple
trees after injection with ferrous sulfate. Hort. Sci. 21(4): 1029-1031. 1986.
[31] Al-Aa’reji, J. M. A. Effect of bicarbonate and iron on vegetative growth of sour orange seedling. J. Tikret. Univ. Agri. Sci. 3(5): 93-104. 2003. (In Arabic).
[32] Gobara, A. A. Response of ‘Le-Conte’ pear trees to foliar applications of some nutrients. Egypt. J. Hort. 25(1): 55-
70. 1998.