Biomarker characteristics of oils from Garmian Oil Fields and potential Jurassic source rocks, Kurdistan,NE Iraq: implications for oil–oil and oil-source rocks correlation.

Diyar A. Saeed and Ibrahim M.J. Mohialdeen
Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Study and Scientific Research
Department of Geology, School of Science, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan


Abstract 

The Middle Jurassic Sargelu Formation in Sangaw North -1 (SwN-1) borehole, Sangaw
North Block, Garmian area, Kurdistan region, was used for geochemical analyses. Two
crude oils from PLK-8 and Sarqala-1 wells in Pulkhana and Sarqala oil fields, one
condensate from KM-3 well in Kor Mor gas field and seepage oil from ChiaSurkh oil
field were chosen for organic geochemistry investigation, oil-oil and oil-source rocks
correlation. Tectonically, the study area is located in the southeastern part of the Foothill
Zone in Zagros Fold Belt. The biomarkers ratios and molecular compound distributions 
showed that the oils, condensate and rock extracted sample of Sargelu Formation were derived
from marine carbonate source rocks bearing marine algae and kerogen type II that deposited under
reducing condition. Low presence of gammacerane indicated normal salinity condition
during the depositions. The GC-FID traces of oils and condensate showed lack of any
remarkable biodegradation, but rock-extracted of Sargelu Formations is strongly
contaminated by polyethylene glycol according to the GC-FID chromatogram.
Compositional similarity of sterane, hopane, isopernoid and n-alkane compounds among
the crude oils and crude oils with extracted sample of Sargelu Formation suggested that
the oils might be sourced from the same or similar source rocks that deposited under
similar conditions. On the other hand, Sargelu Formation is supposed to be one of the
sources of the generated crude oils. However, the maturity-related parameters showed no
similarity between the crude oils and extracted sample of Sargelu Formation.

Key Words:
Kurdistan
Garmian
Sangaw
Sargelu
oil-source correlation
Biomarkers


References

Abdula, R. “Petroleum source rock analysis of the Jurassic Sargelu Formation, northern Iraq”, M.Sc. thesis (unpublished), Colorado School and Mines, United States, 106p. (2010)

Abdula, R. “Hydrocarbon potential of Sargelu formation and oil-source correlation, Iraqi Kurdistan”,Arab. J. Geosci. DOI 10.1007/s12517-014-1651-0. (2015)

Abeed Q., Leythaeuser D., and Littke R. “Geochemistry, origin and correlation of crude oils in Lower Cretaceous sedimentary sequences of the southern Mesopotamian Basin, southern Iraq”, Organic Geochemistry 46:113-126. (2012)

Abdula, R.A., Balaky, S.M., Nourmohamadi, M.S., and Piroui, M. “Microfacies Analysis and Depositional Environment of the Sargelu Formation (Middle Jurassic) from Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq”, Donnish Journal of Geology And Mining Research, Vol 1(1) pp. 001-026. (2015)

Adegoke, A.K., Abdulla, W.H., and Hakimi, M.H. “Geochemical and petrographic characterization of organic matter from the Upper Cretaceous Fika shale succession in the Chad (Bornu) Basin, northeastern Nigeria: Origin and hydrocarbon generation potentiall ”, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 61,pp. 95-110. (2015)

Al-Ahmad, A.A. and Al-Gibouri, A. S. “Geochemical and Palynological analysis in assessing hydrocarbon potential and palaeoenvironmental deposition, north Iraq”, Journal of Petroleum Researches and Studies 190(2): 98-112. (2011)

Al-Ameri T. K., Najaf A. A., Al-Khafaji A. S., Zumberge J., Pitman J. “Hydrocarbon potential of the Sargelu Formation, North Iraq”, Arab J Geosci. DOI: 10.1007/s12517-013-0875-8. (2013)

Al-Ameri T. K., Zumberge J. and Markarian Z. M. “Hydrocarbons in the Middle Miocene Jeribe Formation, Diyala Region, NE Iraq”, Journal of Petroleum Geology 34(2): 199-216. (2012)

Al-Qayim, B. Fuad Qadir, and Fawzi Al-Biaty “Dolomitization and porosity Evaluation of the Cretaceous Upper Qamchuqa (Mauddud) Formation, Khabbaz oil field, Kirkuk area, Northern Iraq”, GeoArabia 15(4): 49 –76. (2010)

Aqrawi, A.A.M., Goff, J.C., Horbury, A.D., and Sadooni, F.N. “chapter 5: Middle Permian to Middle Jurassic” in The Petroleum Geology of Iraq, Beaconsfield, United Kingdom: Scientific Press Ltd, PO Box 21, Beaconsfield, Bucks, HP9 1NS, UK. (2010)

Balaky, S.M.H. “Stratigraphy and sedimentology of Sargelu Formation (Middle Jurassic) in selected sections in Erbil and Duhuk Governorates–Iraqi Kurdistan”, M.Sc. thesis (unpublished), University of Salahaddin, Iraq, 109p. (2004)

Bellen, R.C. van, H.V. Dunnington, R. Wetzel, and D.M. Morton, eds., Lexique stratigraphic international: Paris, v. III, Asie, Fascicule 10a Iraq, 333 p. (1959)
Beydoun, Z. R. “Arabian plate oil and gas: Why so rich and so prolific?”, Episodes 21 (2): 74-81. (1998)

Buday, T. “The regional geology of Iraq, v. 1, stratigraphy and paleogeography: Mosul, Iraq”, Dar Al-
Kutub Publishing House, University of Mosul, 445p. (1980)

Buday, T. and Jassim, S. Z. “The regional geology of Iraq: Vol.2: Tectonism, Magmatism, and Metamorphism. In I. I. Kassab and M. Abbas (eds.), Dar Al-Kutib Publication House, Mosul, Iraq, 325p. (1987)

Connan J., Kavak O., Akin E., Yalc M. N., Imbus k. and Zumberge J. “Identification and origin of bitumen in Neolithic artefacts from Demirko ̈y Ho ̈yu ̈k (8100 BC): Comparison with oil seeps and crude oils from southeastern Turkey”, Organic Geochemistry 37: 1752-1767. (2006)

Connan J. “Chapter I.7: Molecular Geochemistry in Oil Exploration”, in Applied Petroleum Geochemistry, edited by M. L. Bordenave, pp.177-203. (1993)

Fatah, S.S. “Source rock characterization and biomarker distribution of Sargelu Formation (Middle Jurassic), Miran Oil Field, Sulaimani area, Kurdistan Region, NE-Iraq”, MSc thesis, Unpublished, University of Sulaimani, 140p. (2014)

Hakimi, M.H., Mohialdeen, I.M.J., Abdullah, W.H., Wimbledon, W., Makeen, Y.M., and Mustapha, K.A. “Biomarkers and inorganic geochemical elements of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous limestone sediments from Banik Village in the Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq: implications for origin of organic matter and depositional environment conditions”, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, DOI 10.1007/s12517-015-1863-y .(2015)

Hunt, J.M. “Petroleum Geochemistry and Geology”, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 743 pp. (1996)

Jassim, S.Z., and T. Buday “chapter 10: Late Toarcian-Early Tithonian (Mid-Late Jurassic) Megasequence AP7”, in Geology of Iraq, edited by Jassim, S.Z., and J.C. Goff, first edition: Brno, Czech Republic, Prague and Moravian Museum, pp.117-123. (2006) c

Jassim, S.Z., and T. Buday “chapter 6: Units of the Unstable Shelf and the Zagros Suture”, in Geology of Iraq, edited by Jassim, S.Z., and J.C. Goff, first edition: Brno, Czech Republic, Prague and Moravian Museum, pp. 71-83. (2006) a

Mohialdeen I.M.J. “Source rock appraisal and oil-source correlation for the Chia Gara Formation, Kurdistan-north Iraq”, PhD thesis, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, pp. 15–35. (2008)

Mohialdeen I.M.J., Hakimi M.H., Al-Beyati F.M. “Geochemical and petrographic characterization of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Chia Gara Formation in Northern Iraq: palaeoenvironment and oil generation potential”, Mar Pet Geol 43:166–177. (2013)

Murris, R.J. “Middle East-stratigraphic evolution and oil habitat”, AAPG Bulletin 64 (5): 597-618. (1980)

Othman, R., Arouri, K.H., Ward,C.R., and McKirdy, D.M. “Oil generation by igneous intrusions in the northern Gunnedah Basin, Australia”, Organic Geochemistry 32:1219-1232. (2001)

Peters, K.E. and Fowler, M.G. “Applications of petroleum geochemistry to exploration and reservoir management”, Organic Geochemistry 33: 5-36. (2002)

Peters, K.E., Walters, C.C., Moldowan, J.M. “The Biomarker Guide, vol. 2. Cambridge University Press, 1155 p. (2005)

Pitman, J.K., D. Steinshouer, and M. D. Lewan “Petroleum generation and migration in the Mesopotamian Basin and Zagros Fold Belt of Iraq, results from a basin-modeling study”, GeoArabia, Gulf PetroLink, Bahrain 9(4): 41-72. (2004)

Rabbani A. R. and Kamali M. R. “Source Rock Evaluation and Petroleum Geochemistry , Offshore SW Iran”, Journal of Petroleum Geology 28(4): 413-428. (2005)

Saeed D. A. “Organic geochemical characteristics of Lower-Middle Jurassic succession and crude oils from selected wells, Garmian area, Kurdistan Region, NE-Iraq”, MSc thesis, Unpublished, University of Sulaimani, 144p. (2015)

Saeed, D.A., Mohialdeen, I.M.J., and Kalaitzidis, S. “ Thermal maturity of Early-Middle Jurassic formations in Well Sangaw North-1 (SwN-1), Garmian, Kurdistan, NE Iraq: implications for petroleum generation”, Poster for ICCP-2014 India, September 20-27, 2014. http://iccp2014india.org/. (2014)

Sharland, P. R., Archer, R., Casey, D. M., Davies, R. B., Hall, S. H.,Heward, A. P., Horbury, A. D., and Simmons, M. D. “Arabian Plate Sequence Stratigraphy”, GeoArabia, Special publication 2, Gulf Petro Link, Bahrain, 372p. (2001)

Tissot, B.P. and Welte, D.H. “Petroleum Formation and occurrence: A new approach to oil and gas exploration”, 2nd ed.: Springer Verlag, Berlin, 699 p. (1984)