Using Crushed Limestone Rocks in Sports Field Rootzones at Different Levels of Bulk Density

Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Fattah

Faculty of Agricultural Sciences-Sulaimani University, Bakrajo Street, Sulaimaniyah-Iraq


Most parks and sports fields are built using native type soils that generally contain excess
clay and silt contents. Problems associated with these soil types include: easily
compacted, poor drainage, low water infiltration, low nutrient availability, and reduced
root growth. Various methods have been used to modify these soils by mixing it with
sand and other amendments, due to shortage of natural sand in many parts of the world
and conserving natural resources, it is necessary to find alternative materials; crushed
limestone sand can be identified as an alternative natural sand in making good quality
sport field mixture.To assess the possibility of using crushed limestone rocks and to establish a successful
sports field mixture, (700, 270 and 30 g kg-1) of crushed limestone sand, native soil, andpeatmoss, 
respectively on mass basis were mixed. 
Some parameters that are related tosoil mixture of sport field were studied: stability, 
saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), maximum water holding capacity (MWHC), 
and each of water holding capacity (WHC) against the gravity and penetration resistance 
(PRE) of mixture over time were measured at different bulk densities (1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.6 Mg m-3). 
To select the best bulk density (ρb) at constructed sports field rootzones, the coefficient of determination (R2)
between ρb and each of the studied parameters were determined which were strong
relation among them. This finding suggests that ρb may control problems during making
soil mixture. In this research the best ρb of mixture are ranged from 1.417 to 1.510 Mg
m-3 at which sports field soil provided good stability, good drain, and the quality of the
playing surface well recognized in unfavorable weather conditions.

Key Words:
Crushed limestone,
Bulk density,
Water holding


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