Identification of Internal Parasites in Sheep and Goats in Garmiyan Province/Kurdistan Region/Iraq


Mohammed T. AL-Zandee, HiwaY. Essa, Osman M. Jabary, Aram A. AL-Shateri and Yousef KH. AL-Bajalan

Garmiyan Veterinary Directorate, Kalar, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17656/jzs.10559

Abstract

A study was conducted to identify different kinds of internal parasites that are distributed in ruminants in Garmiyan province, southeast Kurdistan region/ Iraq. Fecal samples from 460 animals (360 sheep and 100 goats) were examined from April to December, 2015 that includedapplying different parasitological techniques. Mini-flotac flotation method was used for the detection of nematode and cestode helminths; the sedimentation technique used for trematodes whereas for recovering lung worms and infective larvae Baermann technique was applied andculturing of fecal samples was implemented for the differentiation of free living stages. The study revealed that overall 46.52% of tested animals had been infected with several gastrointestinal helminths that were distributed between 48.05% in sheep and 41% in goats respectively. Marshallagia marshalli was by far the most prevalent parasite in the area with about 74% of positive samples followed by Nematodes like eggs including (Trichostrongylus spp., Teledorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortusand Cooperia spp.) then lung worms. The majority of samples were mixed infection by nearly 76% and the rest were single infection. According to the age category, adult animals recorded more rates of infection (49.09%) than young (39.84%),while in regards tothe sex factor; females were relatively more than males (47.13% compared to 42.37%). The study suggested that susceptibility of animals, environmental conditions in addition to managing trials implemented like husbandry and density of stocking may play a role in increasing contamination on pasture and increasing abundance of parasites. Other aspects like testing anthelmintic resistance and existing control measures used by people in this area should be taken into account when research is undertaken in the future.


Key Words: 
Gastrointestinal helminths GIH;
Egg per grame. p.g; Mini-flotac



References

[1] Al-Bayati, O. A.S. and Arsalan, S.H. “Clinical and haematological study in sheep infected with gastrointestinal parasites in Mosul", Iraqi Vet. Sciences Journal, Vol. 23, No.1, pp. 93-100. (2009).

[2] Raza, A. Iqbal, Z. Jabbar, A. and Yaseen, M. " Point prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in ruminants in southern Punjab, Pakistan" , Journal of Helminthology, Vol. 81, pp. 323-328. (2007).

[3] Dagnachew, S. H. Amamute, A. and Temesgen, W. "Epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthiasis ofsmall ruminants in selected sites of North Gondar zone, Northwest Ethiopia" , Ethiopian. Vet. Journal, Vol.15, No.2, pp. 57-68. (2011).

[4] Othman, J. N. Rizgar, R. S. and Shadan, H. A. "Prevalence of the Gastrointestinal Tract Parasite in Goats in Sulaimani Province", Assiut Vet. Med. Journal, Vol. 60, No.141, pp. 25-28. (2014).

[5] Mavrot, A. Hertzberg, H. and Torgerson, P. "Effect of gastro-intestinal nematode infection on sheep performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis", Parasites & Vectors Journal, Vol. 8, No.557, pp. 1-11. (2015)

[6] Gherman , C. “Textbook of Veterinary Parasitology”: AcademicPress, Cluj-Napoca, pp. 41-60. (2013).

[7] Hepworth, K. Neary, M. and Hutchens, T." Managing Internal Parasitism in sheep and goats”: Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, West Lafayettes, pp. 1-10. (2006).

[8] Pestechian, N. Kalani, H. Faridnia, R. and Ali, Y. H. "Zoonotic Gastrointestinal Nematodes (Trichostrongylidae) from Sheep and Goat in Isfahan, Iran", Acta Scientiae Veterinariae,Vol. 42, No.1243, pp. 1-6. ( 2014).

[9] Turner, J. Kates, K. and Wilson, G. "The Interaction of Concurrent Infections of the Abomasal Nematodes, Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia circumcincta, and Trichostrongylus axei (Trichostroiigylidae), in Lambs", The Helminthological Society, Vol. 29, No.2, pp. 210-216. (1962).

[10] Van Dijik, J. Sargison, N. D. Kenyon, F. and Skuce, P. J. "Climate change and infectious disease: helminthological challenges to farmed ruminants in temperate regions", Animal Consortium, Vol. 4, No.3, pp.377–392. (2010).

[11] Hensen, J. and Perry, B."The epidemiology, diagnosis and control of helminth parasites of ruminants",2nd Ed., International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases,FAO, Nairobi/Kenya, chap. 3. (1994).

[12] Silva, L. Vila-Viccosa, M. Maurelli, M. Morgoglione, M. Cortes, H. Cringoli, G. and Rinaldi, L.

“Mini-FLOTAC for the diagnosis of Eimeria infection in goats: An alternative to McMaster", Small Ruminant Research, Vol. 114, No.2, pp. 280-283. (2013).

[13] Barda, B. Cajal, P. Villagran, E. Cimino, R. Juarez, M. Krolewiecki, A. Rinaldi, L. Cringoli, G. Burioni, R. and Albonico, M. "Mini-FLOTAC, K`ato-Katz and McMaster: three methods, one goal; highlights from north Argentina", Parasites & vectors Journal, Vol. 7, No.271, pp.1-7. (2014).

[14] Hutchinson, G. W. "Nematode Parasites of Small Ruminants, Camelids and Cattle, Diagnosis with Emphasis on Anthelmintic Efficacy and Resistance Testing" Australia and New Zealand Standard Diagnostic Procedures, pp. 1-61. (2009).

[15] Moradpour, N. Borji, H. Razmi, GH. Kazemi, H. and Maleki, M. " Comparison of two methods of Marshallagia marshalli donor sheep production", Journal of Parasit Dis, Vol. 38, No.3 , pp. 289-292. (2014).

[16] Radfar,M. H. Sakhaee. E. Shamsaddini, B. M. and Haj Mohammadi, H. "Study on gastrointestinal parasitic infections of Raeini goats", Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol.12, No.1, pp. 76-80.( 2011).

[17] Urquhart, G. Armour, J. Duncun, J. Dunn, A. and Jennings, F. "VeterinaryParasitology" , 2ndEd, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK,chapt.1 and 3. (1996).

[18] Whittier, W. Zajac, A. and Umberger, S." Control of Internal Parasites in Sheep" Virginia Cooperation Extension, Virginia Polytechnic Institute , State University and Virginia State University. pp. 1-8. (2009).

[19] Peregrine, A. Fernandez, S. Kelton, D. Jones, A. Menzies, P. Guthrie, A. Martin, R. VanLeeuwen, J. LeBoeuf, A. Corriveau, F. and Jansen, J. "Handbook for the Control of Internal Parasites of Sheep" Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph. pp. 1-44. (2009).