Issues‎ > ‎vol19n1‎ > ‎

Hepatitis A Seropositivity among Children and Students Under 18 Years Old in Sulaimani Governorate-Kurdistan Regional Government

Salih A. Hama

Biology Department, School of Science, University of Sulaimani, 
 Kurdistan Region, Iraq 



To find the rates of anti-Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) IgG and IgM seropositivity among less than 18 years-old persons, 328 cases were tested by ELISA in Sulaimani Governorates, Iraqi Kurdistan region. It was observed that 47.86% cases were seropositive for anti-HAV IgG whereas only 16.15% were positive for anti-HAV IgM. Sex showed no significant effects on positive results for both IgG and IgM (p = 435, 0.891) respectively. The highest rate of anti- IgG seropositivity was among cases with more than 12 years-old (80.82%) while the highest rate for anti-IgM was among 5-8 years old (2.89%). The age showed noticeable effects on anti-IgG seropositivity (p = 0.000) unlike anti-IgM (p = 0.521). The child educational level also showed a significant effect on anti-IgG (p = 0.000) and anti-IgM (p = 0.0022). It was noticed that the well water has a significant effect on anti-IgM seropositivity (p = 0.027) among tested cases, while other sources showed no effects on the results (p>0.05). Family education showed significant effects on the anti-IgM seropositivity (p = 0.0022) unlike anti-IgG (p = 0.713). Moreover, it was concluded that the living places and family sizes showed significant effects on both anti-IgG and IgM seropositivity (p = 0.0022 and 0.0020) respectively for living places and (p = 0.0019 and 0.047) for family size). Socioeconomic status also significantly effective on anti-IgG (p = 0.0008) and anti-IgM seropositivity (p = 0.0078). The jaundice history showed valuable effects on anti-HAV IgG (p = 0.0207) and IgM seropositivity (p = 0.0017).

Key Words:
Anti-IgG, anti IgM, HAV, oral-fecal route, socioeconomic status


[1] Krugman, S., J. P. Giles and J. Hammond. "Infectious hepatitis. Evidence for two distinctive clinical, epidemiological and immunological types of infection". J. Am. Med. Assoc., Vol. 200, pp. 365-373 (1967).

[2] Rueckert, R. R. and E. Wimmer. "Systematic nomenclature of picornavirus proteins". J. Virol., Vol. 50, pp. 957-959 (1984).

[3] Melnick, J. L. "Properties and classification of hepatitis A virus". Vaccine, Vol. 10(Suppl. 1), pp. S24-S26. (1992).

[4] Cromeans, T., M. D. Sobsey, and H. A. Fields. "Development of a plaque assay for a cytopathic, rapidly replicating isolate of hepatitis A virus". J. Med. Virol., Vol. 22, pp. 45-56. (1987).

[5] Lemon, S. M. "Hepatitis A virus: Current concepts of the molecular virology, immunobiology, and approaches to vaccine development". Rev. Med. Virol., Vol. 2, pp. 73-87. (1992).

[6] Cliver, D. O. "Vehicular transmission of hepatitis A". Public Health Rev., Vol. 13, pp. 235-292. (1985).

[7] Ross, B. C. and D. A. Anderson. "Characterization of hepatitis A virus capsid proteins with antisera raised to recombinant antigens". J. Virol. Meth., Vol. 32, pp. 213-220. (1991).

[8] Akriviadis, E. A. and A. G. Redeker. "Fulminant hepatitis A in intravenous drug users with chronic liver disease". Ann. Intern. Med., Vol. 110, pp. 838-839. (1989).

[9] Hadler, S. C., H. M. Webster, J. J. Erben, J. E. Swanson and J. E. Maynard. "Hepatitis A in day-care centers. A community-wide assessment". New Engl. J. Med., Vol. 302, pp. 1222-1227. (1980).

[10] Lednar, W. M., S. M. Lemon, J. W. Kirkpatrick, R. R. Redfield, M. L. Fields and P. W. Kelley. "Frequency of illness associated with epidemic hepatitis A virus infections in adults". Am. J. Epidemiol., Vol. 122, pp. 226-33. (1985).

[11] Hadler, S. C. "Global Impact of Hepatitis A Infection: Changing Patterns. In: Hollinger, F.B., S.M. Lemon and H.S". Margolis (Eds.), Williams and Wilkins, Baltimer (1991).

[12] Mackiewicz, V., A. M. Roque-Afonso, E. Marchadier, E. Nicand, L. Fki-Berrajah and E. Dussaix. "Rapid investigation of hepatitis A virus outbreak by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis". J. Med. Virol., Vol. 76, pp. 271-278. (2005).

[13] Vitral, C. L., F. L. N. Ospina, S. Artimos, J. G. Melgaço, O. G. Cruz, V. S. de Paula, S. B. Luz, M. Freire, L. P. Gaspar, L. A. Amado, E. M. Engstrom, C. D. F. M. Fortes, T. C. de Souza, M. N. Dias, A. M. C. Gaspar and F. J. D. Souto. "Declining prevalence of hepatitis A virus antibodies among children from low socioeconomic groups reinforces the need for the implementation of hepatitis A vaccination in Brazil". Mem. Inst. Oswaldo. Cruz. Rio de Janeiro, Vol. 107, No. 5, pp. 652-658. (2012).

[14] Jacobsen, K. H. and S. T. Wiersma. "Hepatitis A virus seroprevalence by age and world region (1990 and 2005)". Vaccine, Vol. 41, pp. 6653-6657. (2010).

[15] Salama, I. I., S. M. Samy, A. I. Hassanin and A. L. Abou Ismael. "Seroprevalence of hepatitis A among children of different socioeconomic status in Cairo". Health Rev. La Mediterranee Oreintale, Vol. 13, No. 6, pp. 1256-1264. (2007).

[16] Yassin, K., R. Awad, A. Tebi, A. Queder and U. Laaser. "The epidemiology of hepatitis A infection in Palestine: A universal vaccination programme is not yet needed". Epidemiol. Infect. Vol. 127, No. 2, pp. 335-339. (2001).

[17] Antaki, N. and M. K. Kebbewar. "Hepatitis A seroprevalence rates in Syria". Trop. Doct. Vol.30, No. 2, pp. 99-101. (2000).

[18] Das, K., A. Jain, S. Gupta, S. Kapoor, R. K. Gupta, A. Chakravorty et al. "The changing epidemiology pattern of Hepatitis A in an Urban Population in India: Emergence of a trend similar to the European countries". Eur. J. Epidemiol., Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 507-510. (2000).

[19] Fix, A. D., O. S. Martin, L. Gallicchio, P. A. Vial and R. Lagos. "Age-specific prevalence of antibodies to Hepatitis A in Santiago, Chile: Risk factors and shift in age of infection among children and young adults". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 628-632. (2002).

[20] Khalil, M., et al. "Childhood epidemiology of Hepatitis A virus in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia". Anna. Saudi Med., Vol. 18m No. 1, pp. 18-21 (1998).

[21] Ciaccia, M. C. C., R. C. Moreira, A. A. Ferraro, M. F. Lemos, G. Porta and I. T. Oba. "Epidemiological and serological aspects of hepatitis A among children and teenagers in the city of Santos: A cross-sectional study". Sao Paulo Med J. Vol. 130, No. 4, pp. 230-235. (2012).

[22] Redlinger, T., K. O'Rourke, and J. Van Derslice. "Hepatitis A among Schoolchildren in a US-Mexico border community". Am. J. Publ. Health, Vol. 87, No. 10. pp. 1715-1717. (1997).

[23] Arvas, G, A. Bora, T. Özsari, B. Kaya and G. Açikgöz. "Investigation of Hepatitis A seropositivity in children with different age groups in Igdir, Turkey". Comp. Res. J. Med. Med. Sci., Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 8-13. (2014).

[24] Kazemi, S. A., M. Mahram, A. Koosha and H. R. Amirmoghaddami. "Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A in 7-10 year-old children". Iran J. Ped., Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 47-51. (2007).