Issues‎ > ‎vol19n1‎ > ‎

Internationally recognised index macro- and microfossils used to define the Upper Cretaceous stages boundary


Rawand Bakir Noori Jaff

College of Basic Education, Charmo University, 46023 Chamchamal, Sulaimani, Kurdistan region, Iraq

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17656/jzs.10590

Abstract

The Cretaceous system (145-66 Ma) in the history of the Earth can be divided into two series, which are the Lower Cretaceous and the Upper Cretaceous. The Upper Cretaceous can be divided into six stages (Cenomanian, Turonian, Coniacian, Santonian, Campanian and Maastrichtian). The boundaries between some of the Upper Cretaceous stages are now well defined in different localities in the world especially in Europe. The Upper Cretaceous stages boundaries were primarily defined by ammonites, inoceramid bivalves, belemnites, crinoids and in some cases planktonic foraminifera as well. At the moment four out of the six Upper Cretaceous stages boundaries are now formally ratified as the Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP). The formally ratified GSSP boundaries which are approved by the International Union of Geological Sciences are (Cenomanian, Turonian, Santonian and Maastrichtian).
Due to relatively rare of ammonoid groups in the Cenomanian, therefore, the base of the Cenomanian Stage can be defined by the lowest occurrence of the planktonic foraminifera Thalmanninella globotruncanoides. After considering several potential placements, the Turonian Working Group placed the base of the ammonite Watinoceras devonense for the base of the Turonian Stage. The sudden turnover from Magadiceramus inoceramid bivalves to the lowest occurrence of the widespread inoceramid Platyceramus undulatoplicatus has been selected as the marker for the base of the Santonian. The Maastrichtian Working Group recommended the base of the Maastrichtian to be assigned as the lowest occurrence of ammonoid Pachydiscus neubergicus that has a much wider geographic distribution than belemnite Belemnella lanceolata.


Key Words:
Upper Cretaceous, Thalmanninella globotruncanoides, Watinoceras devonense, Platyceramus undulatoplicatus, Pachydiscus neubergicus.


References

[1] Ogg, J. C. and Hinnov, L. A. "Cretaceous". In: Gradstein, F. N., Ogg, J. G., Schmitz, M. and Ogg, G. 2012 (eds.) The Geologic time scale 2012. Elsevier, pp. 793-853. (2012).

[2] Koch, C. F. "Cretaceous Period". In: Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 12 April, 2016, from http://www.britannica.com/science/Cretaceous-Period/Major-subdivisions-of-the-Cretaceous-System. (2016).

[3] Birkelund, T., Hancock, J. M., Hart, M. B., Rawson, P. F., Remane, J., Robaszynski, F., Schmid, F. and Surlyk, F. "Cretaceous stage boundaries-proposals". Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark, Vol. 33, pp. 3-20. (1984).

[4] Hancock, J. M. "Ammonite scales for the Cretaceous System". Cretaceous Research, Vol. 12, pp. 259-291. (1991).

[5] Bengtson, P., Cobban, W. A., Dodsworth, P., Gale, A. S., Kennedy, W. J., Lamolda, M. A., Matsumoto, T., Reyment, R. A., Siebertz, E. and Tröger, E.. "The Turonian stage and substage boundaries". Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 66-Supplement, pp. 69-79. (1996).

[6] Hancock, J. M. and Gale, A. S. "The Campanian Stage". Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 66-Supplement, pp. 103-109. (1996).

[7] Kauffman, E. J., Kennedy, W. J. and Wood, C. J. "The Coniacian stage and substage boundaries". Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 66-Supplement, pp. 81-94. (1996).

[8] Gale, A. S., Kennedy, W. J., Burnett, J. A., Caron, M. and Kidd, B. E. "The Late Albian to Early Cenomanian succession at Mont Risou near Rosans (Drôme, SE France): An integrated study (ammonites, inoceramids, planktonic foraminifera, nannofossils, oxygen and carbon isotopes)". Cretaceous Research, Vol. 17, pp. 515-606. (1996).

[9] Gale, A. S., Hancock, J. M., Kennedy, W. J., Petrizzo, M. R., Lees, J. A., Walaszczyk, I. and Wray, D. S. "An integrated study (geochemistry, stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, nannofossils, planktonic foraminifera, inoceramid bivalves, ammonites and crinoids) of the Waxahachie Dam Spillway section, north Texas, a possible boundary stratotype for the base of the Campanian Stage". Cretaceous Research, Vol. 29, pp. 131-167. (2008).

[10] Lamolda, M. A., Hancock, J.M., Burnett, J. A., Collam, C. J., Christensen, W. K., Dhondt, A. V., Gardin, S., Gräfe, K.-U., Ion, J., Kauffman, E. G., Kennedy, W. J., Kopaevich, L. F., Lopez, G., Matsumoto, T., Martimore, R., Premoli Silva, I., Robaszynski, F., Salij, J., Summesberger, H., Toshimitsu, S., Tröger, K.-A., Wagreich, M., Wood, C. J. and Yazykova, E. A. "The Santonian Stage and substages". Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 66-Supplement, pp. 95-102. (1996).

[11] Lamolda, M. A., Paul, C. R. C., Peryt, D. and Pons, J. M. "The Global Boundary Stratotype and Section Point (GSSP) for the base of the Santonian Stage, “Cantera de Margas”, Olazagutia, northern Spain". Episodes, Vol. 37, pp. 2-13. (2014).

[12] Kennedy, W. J., Walaszczyk, I. and Cobban, W. A. "Pueblo, Colorado, USA, candidate global boundary stratotype section and point for the base of the Turonian Stage of the Cretaceous and for the Middle Turonian substage, with a revision of the Inoceramidae Bivalve". Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol. 50, pp. 295-334. (2000).

[13] Kennedy, W. J., Gale, A. S., Lees, J. A. and Caron, M. "Definition of a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Cenomanian Stage, Mont Risou, Hautes-Alpes, France". Episodes, Vol. 27, pp. 21-32. (2004).

[14] Kennedy, W. J., Walaszczyk, I. and Cobban, W. A. "The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point for the base of the Turonian Stage of the Cretaceous: pueblo, Colorado, U.S.A." Episode, Vol. 28, pp. 93-104. (2005).

[15] Odin, G. S. and Lamaurelle, M. A. "The global Campanian-Maastrichtian stage boundary". Episodes, Vol. 24, pp. 229-238. (2001).

[16] d’Orbigny, A. "Paléontologie française. Terrains crétacés. 4. Brachiopods". Masson, Paris, pp.390. (1847).

[17] Tröger, K.-A. and Kennedy, W. J. "The Cenomanian Stage". Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 66-Supplement, pp. 57-68. (1996).

[18] d’Orbigny, A. "Cours élémentaire de paléontologie et de géologie stratigraphique". Masson, Paris, Vol. 2, pp. 383-847. (1852).

[19] Harland, W. B., Armstrong, R. L., Cox, A. V., Craig, L. E., Smith, A. G. and Smith, D. G. "A Geologic Time Scale 1989". Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 263. (1990).

[20] Kennedy, W. J. and Cobban, W. A. "Stratigraphy and inter-regional correlation of the Cenomanian-Turonian transition in the Western Interior of the United States near Pueblo, Colorado. A potential boundary stratotype for the base of the Turonian Stage". Newsletters on Stratigraphy, Vol. 24, pp. 1-33. (1991).

[21] Walaszczyk, I. and Wood, C. J. "Inoceramid and biostratigraphy at the Turonian/Coniacian boundary; based on the Salzgitter-Salder Quarry, Lower Saxony, Germany, and the Słupia Nadbrzeżna section, Central Poland". Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol. 48, pp. 395-434. (1998).

[22] Hancock, J. M. and Kennedy, W. J. "The high Cretaceous ammonite fauna from the Tercis, Landes, France". Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre, 63, pp. 149-209. (1993).

[23] Coquand, H. "Notice sur la formation crétacée du départment de la Charente". Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, Vol. 2, pp. 55-98. (1857a).

[24] Coquand, H. "Position des Ostrea columba et biauriculata dans le groupe de la craie inférieure". Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, Vol. 2, pp. 745-766. (1857b).

[25] Walaszczyk, I., Wood, C. J., Lees, J. A., Peryt, D., Voigt, S. and Wiese, F. "The Salzgitter-Salder Quarry (Lower Saxony, Germany) and Słupia Nadbrzeżna river cliff section (central Poland): A proposed candidate composite Global Boundary Stratotype Section and point for the base of the Coniacian Stage (Upper Cretaceous)". Acta Geologica Polonica, Vol. 60, pp. 445-477. (2010).

[26] Montgomery, P., Hailwood, E. A., Gale, A. S. and Burnett, J. A. "The magnetostratigraphy of Coniacian-Late Campanian chalk sequences in southern England". Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 156, pp. 209-224. (1998).

[27] Alvarez, W., Arthur, M. A., Fischer, A. G., Lowrie, W., Napoleone, G., Premoli Silva, I. and Roggenthen, M. W.. "Upper Cretaceous-Palaeocene magnetic stratigraphy at Gubbio, Italy. Type section for the Late Cretaceous-Palaeocene geomagnetic reversal time scale". Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol. (88), pp. 383-389. (1977).

[28] Lowrie, W. and Alvarez, W. "Late Cretaceous geomagnetic polarity sequence: Detailed rock and paleomagnetic studies of the Scaglia Rossa limestone at Gubbio, Italy". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 51, pp. 561-581. (1977).

[29] Dumont, A. "Rapport sur la carte géologique de Royaume". Bulletin de l’Académie royal des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Vol. 16, pp. 351-373. (1849).

[30] Schönfeld, J., Schulz, M.-G., McArthur, J. M., Burnett, J., Gale, A., Hambach, U., Hansen, H. J., Kennedy, W. J., Rasmussen, K. L., Thirlwall, M. F. and Wray, D. S. "New results on biostratigraphy, palaeomagnetism, geochemistry and correlation from the standard section for the Upper Cretaceous white chalk of northern Germany (Lägerdorf-Kronsmoor-Hemmoor)". Mitteilung aus dem Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institut der Universität Hamburg, Vol. 77, pp. 545-575. (1996). [31] Odin, G. S., Hancock, J. M., Antonescu, E., Bonnemaison, M., Caron, M., Cobban, W. A., Dhondt, A., Gaspard, D., Ion, J., Jagt, J. W. M., Kennedy, W. J., Melinte, M., Néraudeau, D., von Salis, K. and Ward, P. D. "Definition of a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point for the Campanian/Maastrichtian boundary". Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Science de la Terre, 66-Supplement, pp. 111-117. (1996).