Issues‎ > ‎vol19n3-n4‎ > ‎


Acute toxicity of Pistacia atlantica green seeds on Sprague- Dawley rat model

Hiewa Othman Dyary1, Heshu Sulaiman Rahman123, Hemn Hassan Othman123, Snur Mohammad1, Amen Hassan, Rasedee Abdullah3

1 College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
2 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health Science, Komar University of Science and Technology-Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
3 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Original: 25 Augest 2017, Revised: 10 October 2017, Accepted: 22 November 2017,  Published online: 20 December 2017


The acute toxic effect of the aqueous extract of Pistacia atlantica green seeds was investigated in groups of Sprague-Dawley rats at oral doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. After 14 days, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in behavior, food and water consumption, body weight gain, and hematological and serum biochemical parameters between untreated control and extract-treated rats. There were lesions in the liver and kidney indicating that aqueous P. atlantica seed extract causes some hepatoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats.

KeywordsPistacia atlantica, Acute toxicity, Animal model, Mount Atlas mastic tree


[1]Bozorgi, M., et al., "Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus): A review of their traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology". The Scientific World Journal, Article ID 219815, 33 pages. (2013).

[2]Pourreza, M., J.D. Shaw, and H. Zangeneh, "Sustainability of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) in Zagros forests, Iran". Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 255, No. 11, pp. 3667-3671. (2008).

[3]Sincech, F., "Bedouin Traditional Medicine in the Syrian Steppe". Rome, Italy: FAO 149. (2002).

[4] Mosaddegh, M., et al., "Ethnobotanical survey of herbal remedies traditionally used in Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad province of Iran". Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 141, No. 1. pp. 80-95. (2012).

[5] Lev, E. and Z. Amar, "Ethnopharmacological survey of traditional drugs sold in the Kingdom of Jordan". Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 82. No. 2. pp. 131-145. (2002).

[6] Yousfi, M., et al., "Fatty acids and sterols of Pistacia atlantica fruit oil". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, Vol. 79, No. 10, pp. 1049-1050. (2002).

[7] Mecherara-Idjeri, S., et al., "Composition and chemical variability of the essential oil from Pistacia lentiscus L. growing wild in Algeria part I: leaf oil". Journal of Essential Oil Research, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 32-38. (2008).

[8] Altundag, E. and M. Ozturk, "Ethnomedicinal studies on the plant resources of east Anatolia, Turkey". Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 19, pp. 756-777. (2011).

[9] Luna, L.G., "Manual of Histologic Staining Methods of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology". New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. (1968).

[10] Stevens, A., L. James, and B. Young, "Wheater’s Basic Pathology: A Colour Atlas and Text". Fourth ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone. (2002).

[11] FDA, "Toxicological Principles for the Safety Assessment of Food Ingredients, in [Food and Drug Administration]". FDA: Port Royal Road, pringfield, VA 22161, USA. (2007).

[12] OECD, "OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals: Acute Oral Toxicity – Acute Toxic Class Method". Guideline No. 423. (2001).

[13] Sellers, R.S., et al., "Society of Toxicologic Pathology position paper: organ weight recommendations for toxicology studies". Toxicologic Pathology, Vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 751-755. (2007).

[14] Bailey, S.A., R.H. Zidell, and R.W. Perry, "Relationships between organ weight and body/brain weight in the rat: what is the best analytical endpoint?" Toxicologic Pathology, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 448-466. (2004).

[15] Gribaldo, L., "Haematotoxicology: scientific basis and regulatory aspects". ATLA, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 111-113. (2002).

[16] Amacher, D.E., et al., "The relationship among microsomal enzyme induction, liver weight, and histological change in cynomolgus monkey toxicology studies". Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 528-537. (2006).

[17] Green, R.M. and S. Flamm, "AGA technical review on the evaluation of liver chemistry tests". Gastroenterology, Vol. 123, No. 4, pp. 1367-1384. (2002).

[18] Limdi, J. and G. Hyde, "Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests". Postgraduate Medical Journal, Vol. 79, No. 932, pp. 307-312. (2003).

[19] Henriksen, J.H., et al., "Dynamics of albumin in plasma and ascitic fluid in patients with cirrhosis". Journal of hepatology, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 53-60. (2001).

[20] Hansen, B.A. and H.E. Poulsen, "Changes in the hepatic capacity of urea-N synthesis, galactose elimination and antipyrine clearance following 70% hepatectomy in the rat". Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. 233-237. (1986).

[21] Greaves, P., "Histopathology of Preclinical Toxicity studies: Interpretation and Relevance in Drug
Safety Evaluation". 4th ed. London, UK: Academic Press. (2012).