Effect of level combinations  of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on growth and yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in a calcareous soil from Sulaimani province

Ghafoor Ahmed Mam Rasul

Department  of  Soil and Water Sciences, College of Agricultural Sciences-Sulaimani University, Kurdistan Region-Iraq


A field experiment was carried out in the Research Farm of the College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region of Iraq, during the winter season of  2014 to evaluate the effect of levels combinations of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on growth and yield of faba bean( Vicia faba L.). The experiment was arranged in arandomized completeblock design (RCBD) with three replicates.  The results indicate that the nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers had no significant effect on most studied growth characteristics of faba bean except for the plant height. The greatest plant height was observed from the application of 78 kg N ha-1and 200 kg P2O5 ha-1(T3) fertilizers. Chlorophyll content index (CCI) was not affected by the nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer application. The highest chlorophyll content index was found under the application of 98 kg N ha-1 and 250 kg P2O5 ha-1 (T4) to the soil.  Statistical analysis revealed that nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers had no significant effect on the value of harvest index, the highest value of harvest index 43.93%  was shown from the application of 98 kg N ha-1 and 250 kg P2O5 ha-1 (T4).  Phosphorus application had no significant effect on phosphorus use efficiency (PUE). The lower phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) was observed at highest P rates application, the maximum PUE (86.40) was observed from the combination of  58 kg N ha-1 with 150 P2O2 kg ha-1 (T2), and it decreased at higher P rate application to (61.22).

Keywords: Faba bean, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus fertilizers


[1]Sepetoğlu,  H. “Grain legumes”.Ege University Faculty. of Agriculture. Publication: 24/4. P.262 (2002).

[2] El-Wakeil, N. E. and El-Sebai, T.N. “ Role of Biofertilizer on Faba Bean Growth, Yield and its Effect on Bean Aphid and the Associated Predators”. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. Vol.3, No. 6, pp.800-807.(2007).

[3] Marschner, H. “Mineral nutrition of higher plants”. Academic Press, (London). (1995).

[4] Ihsanullah, D., Hasan, S., Khan, B. M., Gul, H.  andIjaz, A. Kh. "Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen on           Dry Matter and Grain Yield of Faba Bean (Vicia Faba L.)”. Pakistan Journal Botany, Vol.40, No.6,             pp.2453-2459. (2008).

[5] Kandil, H., Nadia, G. and Magdi, T, A, "Effects of Different Rates of Phosphorus and Molybdenum Application on Two Varieties Common Bean of(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)”. Journal of Agriculture and Food Technology, Vol.3, No.3, pp.8-16. (2013).

[6] Richards, J. R., Zhang, H., Schroder, J. L., Hattey, J. A. and Raun, W. R. “Micronutrient availability as  affected by the long-term application of phosphorus and organic amendments”. Soil Science Society of American Journal, Vol.75, No. 3, pp. 927-939. (2011).

[7]. El-Gizawy, N. K. B., and Mehasen, S. A. S. “Response of faba bean to bio, mineral phosphorus fertilizers and foliar application with zinc”. World Applied Sciences Journal, Vol. (6), No.10, pp. 1359-1365. (2009).

[8] Zaki, M. F., Fawzy, Z. F., Ahmed, A. A.  andTantawy, A. S. “Application of phosphate dissolving bacteria for improving growth and productivity of two sweet pepper (capsicumannuumL.)”. Cultivars undernewly reclaimed soil.Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, Vol. (6), No.3, pp.826- 839. (2012). 

[9] Raghothama, K. G. and Karthikeyan, A. S. “Phosphate acquisition. Plant and Soil”. Vol. 274, pp.37-49. (2005).

[10] Kole, S. C. and Hajra, J. N. “Effect of P solubilizers on the availability of rock phosphate by legumes”. Indian Agriculture, Vol. 43, No. 3/4, pp. 97 – 105. (1999). 

[11] Rakha, M. K. A. and El-Said, M. “Growth and yield of broad bean ViciafabaL.) asaffected by chemical and / or natural phosphorus with differentbiofertilizer”. Journal. Plant Production, Mansoura       University, Vol. 4, No.12, pp.1857 – 1869. (2013).

[12] Mohammed, S.S. “Integrated approach for rock phosphate sulfur combined with bio-fertilization in sandy loam soil”.Egyptian  Journal of Applied Science, Vol. (19), No.2, pp.316-333.(2004).

[13] Havlin, J. L., Tisdal, S. L., Nelson, W. L. and Beaton, J. D. “Soil Fertility and Fertilizers, an introduction to nutrient management”.8th Edition,Pearson. (2013).

[14] Galaly, T.F.S.“Interaction effect of phosphorus and sulfur on phosphorus availability and some growth parameters of a corn plant grown in calcareous soil”. MSc. Thesis, University of Salahaddin, College of Agriculture, Department of Soil and Water. (2010).

[15] Saeed, K. S. “The effects of orthophosphates, pyrophosphates and magnesium on the availability of phosphorus using DRIS methodology”.Ph.D. thesis Department of Soil and Water Sciences,University of Sulaimani. (2008).

[16] Al- Sulaivani, S. I. A. “Physico-chemical behavior of ortho and pyrophosphate in some calcareous soils from northern of Iraq”. Ph. D. thesis College of the Agriculture University of Baghdad. (1993).

[17] Amsalu, N., Jan, D. and Pascal, B. “Phosphorus use efficiency of improved faba bean (Vicia fabaL.) varieties in low-input agro-ecosystems”. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. Vol.000, pp. 1-8. (2016).

[18]Gee,  G. W. and   Bauder,  J. W.Particle-size analysis. P 383-412.In A. Klute (ed.) Methods   of soil analysis”. Physical and mineralogy method, Part I. 2nd Ed. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI. (1986).

[19]Page, A. L., Miller, R. H., and Keeny, D. R. “Methods of soil analysis". No. 9, Part2. American Society Agronomy, Inc. Pub. Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A. (1982).

[20]Nelson, D. W. and  Sommer, L. E. “Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter”. In: Page, A.L., R.H. Miller, and D.R. Keeney,(eds) Methods of Soil Analysis” pp. 539-579 Part.2 Agronomy. 9 SSSA. Madison, W.I. USA. (1986).

[21] Suarez, D. L. “Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, and Barium”. pp. 575-601.In: Sparks, D. L. (ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis: Chemical Methods” Part 3. Soil Science Society of America. Madison, WI, (1996).

[22]Rayment, G. E. and Higginson, F. R.“Australian Laboratory Handbook of Soil and Water Chemical Methods”. Inkata Press. Melbourne. (1992).

[23]Drouineau, G.  “Dosage Rapide du Calcaire Actif du sol: Nouvelles Donnees sur la Separation et al. Nature des Fractions Calcaires”. Ann Agron. Vol. (12), pp. 441-450. (1942).

[24] Olsen, S. R.,  Cole, C. V., Watanabe, F. S. and Dean, L. A. “Estimation of Available Phosphorus in Soils by Extraction with Sodium Bicarbonate”. Circular No.939, USDA. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C, S. R. (1954).

[25] Doberman,  A.  “Nitrogen use efficiency-state of the art. IFA International Workshop on Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizers”. Frankfurt, Germany, June 28-30. (2005).  http://soilfertility.unl.edu/Materials%20to%20include/Nitrogen%20use%20efficiency%20state%20of%20the%20art_Dobermann.pdf

[26] Addinsoft. “XLSTAT version 7.5, Statistical data analysis with MS Excel”. Addinsoft, NY, USA. (2007).

[27]Yirga, W., Mitiku, H. , and Kiros, H. “Effect of zinc and phosphorus fertilizers application on yield and yield components of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) grown in calcariccambisol of semi-arid northern Ethiopia”. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management, Vol. (3) No.12, pp.320-326. (2012).

[28] Esmail, O. and Miran, K. Kh.“Effect of Levels of Phosphorus, Methods of Application and Their Combinations on Growth, Yield, and Quality of Broad Bean in Calcareous Soil”. Zanco, Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. Published by Salahaddin University, Vol. 24, No.3, pp.30-36. (2012).

[29] Salem, S.A. and EL-Nakhlawy, F.S.  “Effect of application of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer levels on seed yield, its components and other characters in faba bean (ViciafabaL.)”. Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 32, pp. 139–148. (1987).

[30] Rouholla,h A., Sakhavi, Sh,,Shakiba, M. R. andMohammadi-Nassad, A. D. “Effect of different intercropping patterns and fertilizers on some growth characteristics of faba bean (Vicia faba L.)”. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR), Vol. 9, No.1, pp. 6-15. (2016).

[31]Somayeh, G. N. and Hashem, A. “Effects of phosphorus fertilization and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain on the growth and yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.)”. IDESIA (Chile), Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 15-21. (2015).

[32] Bozorgi, H. R., Azarpour, E. andMoradi, M. “The effect of Bio, Mineral Nitrogen Fertilization and Foliar Zinc Spraying on Yield and Components of Faba Bean”. World Applied Sciences Journal, Vol. 13, No. 6, pp. 1409-1414. (2011).

[33] Ashoori, J.N.M. “Effect of Biologic Fertilization, Mineral Phosphorous And Nitrogen on Faba Bean Yield And Yield Components In Northern Iran”. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, Vol. 4, No.3, pp.84-92. (2014).