Effect of inoculating mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium on broad bean (Vicia faba L.) growth at different phosphorus levels in calcareous soil.      

Fryal Qadir Ahmed1 & Omar Ali Fattah2

 

1 General Directorate of Agriculture in Sulaimaniyah. Ministry of Agricultural and Water Resources, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Natural Resources Department , College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences,  University of SulaimaniSulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq


Original: 24 August 2019Revised30 September  2019 Accepted17 November 2019Published online20 December 2019



Abstract

The experiment was carried out, under plastic house at the college of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Sulaimani, Bakrajo, during 2018-2019 to determine influence of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Rhizobium leguminosarum at different phosphors levels (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kgPha-1) on broad bean (Vicia faba L.) growth and nutrient uptake. The experiment was performed in a factorial experiment with completed randomized design (CRD) in a silty clay soil, with three replications for each treatment. After ten weeks of growth, the plants were harvested to determine plant growth (root colonization, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, nodule number, and shoot nutrient content N, P, K, Fe and Mo The results showed that inoculated broad bean plants with mycorrhiza or the bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum increased plant growth and nutrient uptake compared with non-inoculated plant. Inoculated soil with AMF increased root colonization, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, and nodule number the highest value was (65%, 15.09gpot-1, 7.72gpot-1 and 128.67 nodule pot-1) respectively and the highest value for shoot N, P, K, Fe and Mo nutrients were (15.68gkg-1, 4.38gkg-1, 17.72 gkg-1, 184.00µgg-1 and 0.83 µgg-1) respectively recorded at highest P level (160 kgPha-1). But when the soil inoculated with the Rhizobium leguminosarum, the effect was increased plant growth, (root colonization ,shoot dry weight, root dry weight and nodule number) The highest value was(26.67% , 15, 60gpot-1, 8.03gpot-1 and 191.33nodule pot-1 ) recorded at highest P level, and inoculation with R. leguminosarum was increased significantly shoot N, P, K, Fe and Mo contents, the highest value were (20.35gkg-1, 3.72 gkg-1,16.78 gkg-1, 175.33 µgg-1 and 0.80 µgg-1  )respectively recorded at highest P level (160 kgPha-1).


Key WordsPhosphorus, Arbuscular Mycorrhiza, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Broad bean. Nutrient uptake  

References

[1] Korir, H., Mungai, N. W., Thuita, M., Hamba, Y. and Masso, C. "Co-inoculation effect of rhizobia and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on common bean growth in a low phosphorus soil", Frontiers in plant science, Vol. 8, pp.141. (2017).

[2] Havlin, R. H. and Tycko, R. "Probing site-specific conformational distributions in protein folding with solid-state NMR", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 102, No. 9, pp.3284-3289. (2005).

[3] Smith, S. and Read, D. "Colonization of roots and anatomy of arbuscular mycorrhiza", Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Academic Press: London, pp.42-90. (2008).

[4] Myint, A., Schwarz, M. J., Verkerk, R., Mueller, H., Zach, J., Scharpe, S., Steinbusch, H., Leonard, B. and Kim, Y. K. "Reversal of imbalance between kynurenic acid and 3-hydroxykynurenine by antipsychotics in medication-naive and medication-free schizophrenic patients", Brain, behavior and immunity, Vol. 25, No. 8, pp.1576-1581. (2011).

[5] Kugler, A. D "The incidence of job security regulations on labor market flexibility and compliance in Colombia: evidence from the 1990 reform". (2000).


[6] Stancheva, I., Geneva, M., Zehirov, G., Tsvetkova, G., Hristozkova, M. and Georgiev, G. "Effects of combined inoculation of Pea plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium on nodule formation and nitrogen fixing activity", Gen. Appl. Plant Physiol, Vol. 4, pp.61-66. (2006).


[7] Deshpande, A., "Does caste still define disparity? A look at inequality in Kerala, India", American Economic Review, Vol. 90, No. 2, pp.322-325. (2000).


[8] Mohammed, S. Z. "The effect of Mycorrhiza, phosphoras solubilizing Bacteria and Rock phosphate on (Vicia faba L.)". Master Thesis, Sulaimani University, College of Agriculture. (2017).


[9] Harso, W. "The Mycorrhizal Plant Root System: Foraging Activities and Interaction with Soil Bacteria in Heterogeneous Soil Environments". (Doctoral dissertation, Dissertation, Berlin, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin). (2016). 


[10] Soleimanzadeh, H. "Effect of VA Mycorrhiza on Growth and Yield of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) at Different Phosphorus Levels", World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 71, pp. 414-417. (2010)


[11] Diarra, G. "Effectiveness of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Increasing acacia koa and leucaena leucocephala tolerance to aluminum and manganese toxicity". M.Sc Thesis, College of Tropical Agriculture and  Human Resources, Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa. (2007)


[12] Latef, A. A. H. A., Hashem, A., Rasool, S., Abd_Allah, E. F., Alqarawi, A. A., Egamberdieva, D. and Ahmad, P. "Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Abiotic Stress in Plants", A review. Journal of Plant Biology, Vol. 59, No. 5, pp. 407-426. (2016).


[13] Johnson, C. R., Menge, J. A., Schwab, S. and Ting, I. P. "Interaction of Photoperiod and Vesicular- Arbuscular Mycorrhizae on Growth and Metabolism of Sweet Orange", New Phytologist, Vol. 90, No. 4, pp. 665-669. (1982).


[14] Powell, J.R., R.H.Gulden, M.M.Hart, R.G.Campbell, D.J.Levy Booth, K.E .Dunfield, K.P.Pauls, C.J.Swanton,J.T.Trevors and J.N. "Klironomes Mycorrhizal and Rhizobial colonization of genetically modified and conventional soybeans". Applied and Environmental Microbiology Vol. 73, pp. 4365-4367. (2007).


[15] Bidartondo, M.I., D.Redecker, I.Hijri, A.Wiemken, T.D.Bruns, L.Dominguez, A.Sersic, J.R. Leake and D.J.Read "Epiparasitic plants specialized on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi". Nature Vol. 419, pp. 389-392. (2002).


[16] Dubova, Laila, Alise Šenberga and I. Alsina. "The effect of double inoculation on the broad beans (Vicia faba L.) yield quality". Res Rural Dev Vol. 1, pp. 34-39. (2015).

[17] Mustafa H. A. "Effect of Biofertillzers and Carbolizer on the Growth and Storage of (Gerbera jamesonii cv. Stanza)". Master of Science in Horticulture, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences at the University of Sulaimani. (2017).

[18] Fattah, O. A. "Effect of Mycorrhiza, Rhizobium and Phosphorus on Soybean (Glycine max L) plant growth". Doctorate of Philosophy. Thesis, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences,The University of Sulaimani. (2009).

[19] Ghafour S. F. "Isolated and characterization of Azotobacter and phosphor solubilizing bacteria from between districts-sulaimani-Kurdistan and uses as biofertilizer on wheat' plant". Msc in soil and water science college of Agricultural Salahaddin Universty. (2017).

[20] Banni, M., Hajer, A., Sforzini, S., Oliveri, C., Boussetta, H. and Viarengo, A. "Transcriptional expression levels and biochemical markers of oxidative stress in Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to nickel and heat stress", Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, Vol. 160, pp. 23-29. (2014).

[21] Phoenix, G. K., Booth, R. E., Leake, J. R., Read, D. J., Grime, J. P. and Lee, J. A. "Simulated pollutant nitrogen deposition increases P demand and enhances rootsurface phosphatase activities of three plant functional types in a calcareous grassland", New Phytologist, Vol. 161, No. 1, pp.279-290. (2004).

[22] Jia, Y., Gray, V. M., and Straker, C. J. "The Influence of Rhizobium and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Accumulation by Vicia faba", Annals of Botany, Vol. 94, No. 2, pp. 251-258. (2004).

[23] Reed, S. C., Seastedt, T. R., Mann, C. M., Suding, K. N., Townsend, A. R. and Cherwin, K. L. "Phosphorus Fertilization Stimulates Nitrogen Fixation and Increases Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in a Restored Prairie", Applied Soil Ecology, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 238-242. (2007).

[24] Mahanta, D., Rai, R. K., Mishra, S. D., Raja, A., Purakayastha, T. J. and Varghese, E. "Influence of Phosphorus and Biofertilizers on Soybean and Wheat Root Growth and Propertiesv", Field Crops Research, Vol. 166, pp. 1-9. (2014).

[25] Demissie, S., Muleta, D. and Berecha, G "Effect of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of faba bean (Vicia faba L.)", International Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 8, pp. 123-136. (2013).

[26] Richardson, A.E. and  Simpson, R.J. "Soil Microorganisms Mediating Phosphorus Availability'", Plant Physiol, Vol. 156, pp. 989-996. (2011).

[27] Stancheva, I., Geneva, M., Zehirov, G., Tsvetkova, G., Hristozkova, M. and Georgiev, G. "Effects of combined inoculation of Pea plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium on nodule formation and nitrogen fixing activity", Gen. Appl. Plant Physiol, Vol. 4, pp. 61-66. (2006).

[28] Ali, M.M., Sani, N.H., Arifunnahar, M. Aminuzzaman, F.M. and Mridha, M. "Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, nutrient uptake and suppression of some selected vegetable crop" Azarian Journal of Agriculture, Vol. 5, No. 6. (2018).

[29] Smith, S.E. and Smith, F.A. "Roles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizas in Plant Nutrition and Growth: New Paradigms from Cellular to Ecosystem Scales", Annu. Rev. Plant Biology, Vol. 62, pp. 227-250. (2011).

[30] Shao, S., Liu, J., Portale, G., Fang, H. H., Blake, G. R., ten Brink, G. H., Koster, L. J. A. and Loi, M. A. "Highly reproducible Sn‐based hybrid perovskite solar cells with 9% efficiency", Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 8, No. 4. (2018).

[31] Andersen, F. and T. Andersen. "Effects of arabuscular mycorrhizas on biomass and nutriants in the aquatic plant Littorell auniflora" Fresh water Biology Vol. 51, pp. 1623-1633. (2006). 

[32] Farzaneh, M., Vierheilig, H., Lössl, A. and Kaul, H. "Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhances nutrient uptake in chickpea", Plant, Soil and Environment, Vol. 57, No. 10, pp.465-470. (2011).

[33] Panneerselvam, S. "Development of Nanostructured Austempered Ductile Cast Iron", Development, Vol. 1, pp.1. (2017).

[34] Bressan, W., Siqueira, J. O., Vasconcellos, C. A. and Purcino, A.A.C. "Fungos micorrízicos e fósforo, no crescimento, nos teores de nutrientes e na produção do sorgo e soja consorciados". Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, Vol. 36, No. 02,  pp. 315-323. (2001).

[35] Hosseini, A. and Gharghani, A "Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Apple Rootstocks in Calcareous Soil", International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 173-185. (2015).

[36] Sylvia, D., Hartel, P., Fuhrmann, J. and Zuberer, D. "Principles and applications of soil microbiology. Pearson Educational Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ", Principles and applications of soil microbiology. 2nd ed. Pearson Educational Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. (2005).

[37] Shi, Z., Zhang, J., Wang, F., Li, K., Yuan, W. and Liu, J. "Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation increases molybdenum accumulation but decreases molybdenum toxicity in maize plants grown in polluted soil", RSC Advances, Vol. 8, No. 65, pp.37069-37076. (2018).

[38] Narwal, M., Jemth, A.S., Gustafsson, R., Almlöf, I., Warpman Berglund, U., Helleday, T. and Stenmark, P. "Crystal Structures and Inhibitor Interactions of Mouse and Dog MTH1 Reveal Species-Specific Differences in Affinity", Biochemistry, Vol. 57, No. 5, pp.593-603. (2018).