Issues‎ > ‎vol22n1‎ > ‎


Mitigating Drought Impact in Corn Cultivation Using Different Drip Irrigation Techniaues


Mohammed A.  Fattah1, Salah A. Aziz1 ,Mohammed S. Kader2


1Department of Natural Resources, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences,University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region-Iraq.

2 Land Department, Directorate of Agricultural of Chamchamal, Iraq. 


Original: 19  August 2019       Revised: 12 January 2019      Accepted: 30 January 2020         Published online: 20 June 2020  

Doi Link


The excessive use of irrigation water led to thinking about creating new irrigation techniques to take full advantage of water input, whereby the agricultural drought will be reduced. For this purpose the current study was carried out to adopt modern irrigation techniques by manipulating traditional drip irrigation technique at depth 0, 5, 15, and 30 cm (DI, SDI5, SDI15, SDI30) and basket technique at depth 5, 15, and 30 cm (BT5, BT15, and BT30) for irrigating corn plant under two levels of irrigation for receiving 100% and 65% of depleted water (I1 and I2, respectively). The grain yield and the amount of consumed water were estimated to calculate irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and yield response factor (Ky). The cumulative depth of irrigation with precipitation for I1 and I2 were 781 and 606 mm, respectively. The grain yield of corn has been significantly (p ≤ 0.05) influenced by level and technique of irrigation; the level I1 and the technique SDI15 showed the highest values. Also the maximum IWUE among all techniques in both irrigation levels was for SDI15, while the minimum IWUE was for DI. The yield response factor showed no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) among all techniques except the DI which gave the highest value 1.381, while the lowest value of 1.093 recorded for BT5. In this study, Ky values in all drip irrigation techniques were bigger than one; In this case using degree of soil water stress (Ks) less than 0.74is not preferable and mitigating drought impact in corn cultivation is unsuccessful.

Key Words: Corn grain yield, Irrigation water use efficiency, Yield response factor, Drip irrigation.


[1] Asuquo, J. and E. Etim,"Physicochemical and bacteriological studies of selected borehole water in Uyo Metropolis in AkwaIbom State",International Journal of Modern Chemistry. Vol. 2, pp. 7-14. (2012).

[2] Moussa, H.R. and S.M. Abdel-Aziz, "Comparative response of drought tolerant and drought sensitive maize genotypes to water stress", Aust J Crop Sci, Vol. 1, pp. 31-36. (2008).

[3]Joaquin A. A., R. Giuseppe, V. Federico and V. M. Alicia,"Drought Management and Planning for Water Resources", Taylor and Francis Group, CRC Press, 268. (2005)

[4] Smeal, D. "Drip irrigation for small plots: A low-tech, low-cost, gravity system". New Mexico Organic Farming Conference, Albuquerque. NM. February, pp. 16-17. (2007).

[5] Lamm, F. and T. Trooien,"Drip line depth effects on corn production when crop establishment is non-limiting", Applied engineering in agriculture. Vol. 21, pp. 835-840. (2005).

[6] Aziz, S.A. "Improving the performance and efficiency of drip/trickle irrigation system in Sulaimani governorate", Doctoral dissertation, University of Sulaimani, Iraq. (2008).

[7] He, J.L., A.M. McHugh, X. Cao, Q. Wang, X. Zhang, and X. Zhang, "Spring wheat performance and water use efficiency on permanent raised beds in arid northwest China". Soil Research. Vol. 46, pp. 659-666. (2008).

[8] Payero, J.O., C.D. Yonts, and S. Irmak,"Advantages and disadvantages of subsurface drip irrigation", Nebraska Extension, Institute of Agriculture and Extension, University of Nebraska-Lincoln: Lincoln, NE, USA. (2005).

[9] Martinez, J. and J. Reca,"Water use efficiency of surface drip irrigation versus an alternative subsurface drip irrigation method", Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. Vol. 140, pp. 1-9. (2014).

[10] Aoda, M.I. and M.A. Fattah, "The interactive effects of water magnetic treatment and deficit irrigation on plant productivity and water use efficiency of corn (Zea Mays L.)", The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences. Vol. 42, pp. 164-179. (2011).

[11] Kirda, C. "Deficit irrigation scheduling based on plant growth stages showing water stress tolerance", Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Water Reports, Vol. 22, pp. 102. (2002).

[12] Fereres, E. and M.A. Soriano, "Deficit irrigation for reducing agricultural water use", Journal of experimental botany. Vol. 58, pp. 147-159. (2007).

[13] Payero, J.O., D.D. Tarkalson, S. Irmak, D. Davison, and J.L. Petersen,"Effect of timing of a deficit irrigation allocation on corn evapotranspiration, yield, water use efficiency and dry mass",Agricultural water management. Vol. 96, pp. 1387-1397. (2009).

[14] Oktem, A. "Effect of water shortage on yield and protein and mineral compositions of dripirrigated sweet corn in sustainable agricultural systems", Agricultural water management. Vol. 95, pp. 1003-1010. (2008).

[15] Klocke, N., R. Currie, L. Stone, and D. Bolton,"Planning for deficit irrigation",Applied Engineering in Agriculture. Vol. 26, pp. 405-412. (2010).

[16] Leite, K., A., Martinez-Romero, J. Tarjuelo, and A. Dominguez,"Distribution of limited irrigation water based on optimized regulated deficit irrigation and typical meteorological year concepts",Agricultural Water Management. Vol. 148, pp. 164-176. (2015).

[17] Khorshidi, M.B. and A. Nasseri,"Irrigation water saving for corn with deficit irrigation strategy: case study for tabriz climate condition", International Congress on River Basin Management. (2011).

[18] Fattah, M.A. "The interactive effect of water magnetic treatment and deficit irrigation on water use efficiency of corn (zea mays L.)". Doctoral dissertation, University of Sulaimani, Iraq. (2009).

[19] Liu, W., D., Li. Hunsaker, X. Xie and G. Wall, "Interrelations of yield, evapotranspiration, and water use efficiency from marginal analysis of water production functions", Agricultural Water Management. Vol. 56, No. 2, pp. 143-151. (2002).

[20] Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture,"Water for Food, Water for Life",  London, Earthscan, and Colombo, International Water Management Institute. (2007). 

[21] Singh, B. and D. Singh,"Agronomic and physiological responses of sorghum, maize and pearl millet to irrigation", Field Crops Research. Vol. 42, pp. 57-67. (1995).

[22] Steduto, P., T. C.Hsiao, E. Fereres and D.Raes, "Crop yield response to water", FAO Roma. (2012).

[23] Doorenbos, J. and A.H. Kassam, "Yield response to water", Irrigation and Drainage: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation, Rome. (1980).

[24] Sepaskhah, A. and S. Ilampour, "Relationships between yield, crop water stress index (CWSI) and transpiration of cowpea (Vignasinensis L)". Agronomie, Vol.16, No. 5, pp. 269-279. (1996).

[25] Page, A.L., R.H. Miller, and D.R. Keeney, "Methods of soil analysis", Part 2. Amer. Soc. Agric. Pub. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. (1982).

[26] Karim, T.H. "Models to predict water retention of Iraqi soil", Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science. Vol. 47, pp. 16-19. (1999).

[27] Berrada, A., A.D. Halvorson, M. Bartolo, and J. Valiant, "The effects of drip irrigation and fertilizer rate on corn yield and soil salinity in the Arkansas River valley", In Colorado Agric. Exp. Sta. Technical Report TR07-14, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.  pp. 6-12. (2007).

[28] Aldrich, S.R., W.O. Scott, and R.G. Hoeft,"A comparison of uniformity measures for drip irrigation", Modern corn production, A and L publications, Champaign. (1976).

[29] Camp, C.R., E. Sadler, and W. Busscher,"Comparison of uniformity measures for drip irrigation systems", Transactions of the ASAE. Vol. 40, pp. 1013-1020. (1997).

[30] Howell, T., B.A. Steward, and D.R. Nielson,"Relationships between crop production and transpiration, evapotranspiration and irrigation", Irrigation of Agricultural Crops, Agronomy Monograph Madison: ASA, CSSA and SSSA, WI. Vol. 30, pp. 391-434. (1990).

[31] Stewart, J.I., R. Hagan, W. Pruitt, R. Danielson, W. Franklin, R. Hanks, J. Riley, and E. Jackson,"Optimizing crop production through control of water and salinity levels in the soil", Utah water research laboratory,Reports. Paper 67. (1977).

[32] Sezen, S.M. and B. Gencel,"Drip irrigation of corn in the Southeast Anatolia Project (GAP) area in Turkey", Irrigation and drainage. Vol. 51, pp. 293-300. (2002).

[33] Abd El-wahed, M.H., A. EL Sabagh, A. Zayed, A. Sanussi, H. Saneoka, and C. Barutcular,"Improving yield and water productivity of maize grown under deficit-irrigated in dry area conditions",Azarian Journal of Agriculture. Vol. 5, pp. 123-132. (2015).

[34] Pandey, R., J. Maranville, and M. Chetima,"Deficit irrigation and nitrogen effects on maize in a Sahelian environment: II. Shoot growth, nitrogen uptake and water extraction", Agricultural Water Management. Vol. 46, pp. 15-27. (2000).

[35] Moosavi, S.G. and J.B. Pak,"The effect of water deficit stress and nitrogen fertilizer levels on morphology traits, yield and leaf area index in maize", Pakistan journal of botany. Vol. 44, pp. 1351-1355. (2012).

[36] Payero, J.O., D.D. Tarkalson, S. Irmak, D. Davison, and J.L. Petersen, "Effect of irrigation amounts applied with subsurface drip irrigation on corn evapotranspiration, yield, water use efficiency, and dry matter production in a semiarid climate", Agricultural water management. Vol. 95, pp. 895-908. (2008).

[37] Ahmed, S.Y., E.A. Ali, and M.H. Abd El-Wahed,"Some physiological and agronomical traits of corn and water use efficiency as affected by irrigation scheduling and farmyard manure mulching under drip irrigation system", Egyptian Journal of Applied Science. Vol. 26, pp. 1-16. (2011).

[38] Smith, M. and P. Steduto,"Yield response to water: the original FAO water production function", Crop yield response to water, Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 66. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome. pp. 6-13. (2012).

[39] Aoda, M.I. and A.S. Najy,"The effects of deficit irrigation applied at different growth stages on the growth and yield of corn (Zea Mays L.) underSulaimania conditions", Iraq journal of soil sciences. Vol. 8, pp. 31-43. (2008).

[40] Oktem, A., M. Simsek, and A.G. Oktem, "Deficit irrigation effects on sweet corn (Zea mays saccharataSturt) with drip irrigation system in a semi-arid region: I. Water-yield relationship", Agricultural Water Management. Vol. 61, pp. 63-74. (2003).

[41] Ayars, J. C.Phene, R. Hutmacher, K. Davis, R. Choneman, S. Vail, and R. Mead,"Subsurface drip irrigation of row crops: a review of 15 years of research at the Water Management Research Laboratory", Agricultural water management. Vol. 42, pp. 1-27. (1999).

[42] Bajracharya, R. and S. Sharma,"Influence of drip irrigation method on performance and yields of cucumber and tomato", Journal of science, engineering and technology. Vol. 1, pp. 1-7. (2005).

[43] Ahmed, T.F., H.N. Hashmi, A.R. Ghumman, A.A. Seihkh, and M.A. Afzal,"Influence of surface and sub-surface drip irrigation methods on performance and yields of two tomato varieties", Academia Journal of Agricultural Research. Vol. 9, pp. 196-202. (2017).

[44] Kipkorir, E., D. Raes, and B. Massawe,"Seasonal water production functions and yield response factors for maize and onion in Perkerra, Kenya", Agricultural Water Management. Vol. 56, pp. 229-240. (2002).

[45] Cakir, R. "Effect of water stress at different development stages on vegetative and reproductive growth of corn", Field Crops Research. Vol. 89, pp. 1-16. (2004).

[46] Klocke, N., J. Schneekloth, S. Melvin, R. Clark, and J. Payero, "Field scale limited irrigation scenarios for water policy strategies",Applied Engineering in Agriculture. Vol. 20, pp. 623-632. (2004).

[47] Kuscu, H., A. Karasu, O. Mehmet, A.O. Demir, and I. Turgut,"Effect of irrigation amounts applied with drip irrigation on maize evapotranspiration, yield, water use efficiency, and net return in a Sub Humid Climate", Turkish Journal of Field Crops.Vol. 18, pp. 13-19, (2013).