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A survey study of Pesticide application pattern in selected plastic houses in Sulaimani governorate/ Iraq

Zana Hama Ghafoor Ahmed1 & Bzhwen Khalid Majeed1


1 College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences/ University of Sulaimani , Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region- Iraq

*Corresponding author’s e-mail: [email protected] 

Original: 14 April 2020        Revised: 21 June 2020        Accepted: 23 August 2020        Published online: 20 December 2020  

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This study was conducted to determine the frequency and types of used pesticides in some plastic houses in Sulaimaniyah.  The levels of perception and behavior of farmers regarding usage of pesticide; and farmer attitude towards the importance of pest management practice adoption are investigated. The study was quantitative research.  Sources of data were collected from observation, questionnaire, and in-depth interview methods. The respondents were vegetable growers inside high tunnels plastic houses from October 2019 to February 2020, (n=102).  The study found that different insecticides and fungicides were mostly applied by vegetable growers.  Insecticides were applied by 55.95% of respondents compared to fungicides and herbicides 28.19%, 15.86% respectively. Abamectin insecticide was the most used active ingredient 54.90% among the farmers, followed by Cyflumetofen 45.10% of respondents.  It was also found that 92.16%, 54.90%, 5.88%, and 43.14% of respondents followed retailer instruction, label instruction, government regulation, and past experiences respectively during pesticide usage.  The data revealed that 100% of respondents have never received government support in terms of pesticide allocation.  Only 11.76% of respondents have been regulated by the government. Immediate comprehensive intervention is recommended to prevent potential hazards and health risks through training programs on pesticide use for farmers, distributors, and retailers.  Further laboratories pesticide residue analyses are needed to evaluate potential toxic effects of the most commonly used pesticides.

Key Words: Pesticides; Insecticides; Fungicides; Herbicides; PPE; IMP