Issues‎ > ‎vol24n1‎ > ‎


Investigation of Different Gastrointestinal Parasites in Stray Dogs in Garmian Administration Area, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Mohammed Abdulkareem Wahab1* 

1Department of Veterinary Techniques, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq 

*Corresponding author e-mail: 

The aims of the study were to diagnose and investigate the prevalence of different gastrointestinal parasites species in dog feces in various locations of the study area. The study was conducted between April and July 2021, during this period a total of 269 fresh fecal samples were collected from adult stray dogs of both gender in public areas from eleven municipalities of Garmian administration, then they were directly processed and analyzed using different standard coprological techniques: screening by dissecting microscope, direct fecal smear with normal saline and Lugol’s solution staining, centrifugal sedimentation, and centrifugal flotation. The results of the study showed that 172 (63.94%) of the total examined dogs were found to be infected with one or more gastrointestinal parasite species (protozoa, cestodes, nematodes, and trematode) with the prevalence 57.620% (155/269), 28.252% (76/269), 10.037% (27/269), and 0.371% (1/269) respectively, as well as indicated that there were statistically significant differences among these rates (p<0.05). The detected parasites significantly differ in their prevalence include: Echinococcus granulosus 21.933% (59/269), Cystoisospora canis 21.561% (58/269), Sarcocystis spp. 12.639% (34/269), Giardia spp. 11.524% (31/269), Ancylostoma canis 5.204% (14/269), Cryptosporidium spp. 4.089% (11/269), Eimeria spp. 5.204% (14/269), Dipylidium caninum 3.345% (9/269), Mesocestoid lineatus 2.973% (8/269), Balantidium spp. 2.602% (7/269), Toxocara canis 1.486% (4/269), Trichuris vulpis 1.486% (4/269), Uncinaria stenocephala 1.115% (3/269), Toxascaris leonina 0.743% (2/269) and Nanophyetus salmincola 0.371% (1/269). This was the first record of these parasites in stray dogs from Garmian Administration area/Iraqi Kurdistan region, in which the types of infection showed that 62.209% (107/172) dogs had single, and 37.790% (65/172) mixed infections which included; double 25.581% (44/172), triple 11.046% (19/172), and quadruple 1.162% (2/172), these types of infection were showed statistically significant difference among each other (p<0.05). The highest prevalence of intestinal infection among dogs was found in May at 72% (36/50) followed by 65.625% (63/96) in April, 61.29% (38/62) in June, and the lowest was 54.098% (33/61) in July with significant difference among them (p<0.05). The results also revealed that all sampled locations examined were positive for the majority of the above-identified parasites, the most prevalent location was Kifri district 100 % (19/19), followed by Qorato sub-district 76.47% (13/17), Shekh Taweel sub.district 75% (12/16), Khanaqin district 69.696% (23/33), Rizgari sub-district 65% (13/20), Pebaz (Bawanur) sub-district 64.285% (18/28), Kalar district 62.5% (20/32), Serqela sub-district 61.29% (19/31), Maidan sub-district 58.333% (14/24), Awaspi sub.district 52.38% (11/21), while Kokiz sub-district was appeared to be the lowest prevalence rate of infection 35.714% (10/28), the statistical analysis showed significant differences in infection rates among these locations (p<0.05).It was that all the identified parasites were recorded for the first time in this area and they were potentially hazardous zoonotic agents, so it was recommended that human beings should avoid fecal contamination of stray dogs in public areas, moreover serious attention by the veterinarians, municipality of the study area and public health service is necessary to generate awareness of these parasites' potential threat.

Key Words: Dogs,Garmian Administration/Iraq, Gastrointestinal parasites, prevalence, public health. 

[1] Cociancic, P., Deferrari, G., Zonta, ML., and Navone, GT. " Intestinal parasites in canine fece contaminating urban and recreational areas in Ushuaia (Argentina)", Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports, Vol. 21, pp.1-5. (2020). [2] Hassan, H. F. and Barzinji, ARA. "Epidemiological survey on stray dogs and cats gastrointestinal parasites in Kirkuk province, Iraq", Kirkuk University Journal /Scientific Studies (KUJSS). Vol. (13) No.1, pp.228-238. (2018). [3] Traversa, D., Di Cesare, A., Simonato, G., Cassini, R. Merola, C. and Diakou, A. Holos, L., and Beugnet, F. "Zoonotic intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in Italian shelter and kennel dogs", Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Disease, Vol. 51, pp.69-75. (2017). [4] Palmer, CS., Andrew Thompson, RC., Traub, RJ., Rees, R., and Robertson, ID." National studies of the gastrointestinal parasites of dogs and cats in Australia", Vet. Parasitol., Vol. (151),No. 2-3, pp. 181–190. (2008). [5] Claerebout, E., Casaert, S., Dalemans, A-C., De Wilde, N, Levecke, B., Vercruysse, J.,and Geurden, T. " Giardia and other intestinal parasites in different dog populations in Northern Belgium", Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. (161), No. 1-2, pp.41–46. (2009). [6] Ramirrez-Barrios, RA., Barboza-Mena, G. Munoz, J. Angulo-Cubillan, and F. Hemandez, E. "Prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs under veterinary care in Maracaibo Venezuela". Vet. Parasitol., Vol. 121, pp.11- 20. (2004). [7] Milad, C. "Echinococcosis-an emerging parasite in the immigrant population", Am Fam Phy. New York, Vol. 66, No. 5, pp. 817-820. (2002). [8] Satyal, RC., Manandhar, S., Dhakal, S., Mahato, BR., Chaulagain, S., and Ghimire, L. and and Pandeya, YR. "Pravalence of gastrointestinal zoonotic helminthes in dogs of Kathmandu, Nepal", Int J Infect Microbiol., Vol. (2), pp.91-94. (2013). [9] Traub, RJ., Robertson, ID., Irwin, P., Mencke, N., and Andrew Thompson, RC." The role of doges in transmission of gastrointestinal parasites in a remote tea-growing community in northeastern India", Am. J. Med. Hyg., Vol. (2), No. 5, pp.539-545. (2002). [10] Dai, RS., Li, ZY., Li, F., Liu, DX., Liu, W., Liu, GH., He, SW., Tan, MY., Lin, RQ., Liu, Y., and Zhu, XQ." Severe infection of adult dogs with helminths in Hunan Province, China poses significant public health concerns", Vet. Parasitol., Vol. (160) No. 3-4, pp.348-350. (2009). [11] Soulsby, EJL. "Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals", 7th ed. Baillière Tindall, London, pp. 763- 792. (1982). [12] Saida, LA. "Studies on the prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus and other cestodes in stray dogs in Arbil, Dhuok and Sulaimaniyah, Northern Iraq", master's thesis, College of Education University of Salahaddin. (1989). [13] Saeed, I., Kapel, C., and Saida, LA. " Willingham L., Nansen P. Epidemiology of Echinococcus granulosus in Arbil province northern Iraq 1990-1998", J Helminthol., Vol. 74, pp. 83-88. (2000). [14] Bajalan MM. "Prevalence of Echinococcosis in stray dogs and Slaughtered livestock in Kalar district/ Sulaimaniyah province / Kurdistan Iraq", master's thesis, College of Veterinary Medicine University of Baghdad. (2007. [15] Wahab, MA., Ali, SA., and Abdulrahman, NR. "Identification of Blood Protozoa in See-See Partridges (Ammoperdix griseogularis) in Garmian Area/Kurdistan Region-Iraq", Al- Anbar Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Vo. (14), No. 1, pp. 48-55. (2021). [16] El-Shehabi, FS., Abdel-Hafez, SK., and Kamhawi, SA." Prevalence of intestinal helminths of dogs and foxes from Jordan", Springer-Verlag. J Parasitol. Res., Vol. (85), pp. 928-934. (1999). [17] Barger, AM. and MacNeill, AL. "Clinical pathology and laboratory techniques for veterinary technicians", John Wiley and Sons, Inc., pp.199-207. (1996). JZS-A Volume 24, Issue 1, June 2022 134 [18] Bowman, DD. "Georgis' parasitology for veterinarians", 10th ed. Saunders Elsevier, UK., pp. 39, 92-102, 136-148, 207,224, 326-354 (2012). [19] Zajac, AM. and Conboy, GA. "Veterinary Clinical Parasitology", 8th ed. Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, UK.: John Wiley & Sons Inc., pp. 4-8. (2012). [20] Blagburn, B. "Internal Parasites of Dogs and Cats, Diagnostic Manual", College of Veterinary Medicine Auburn University, pp. 17-84. (2014). [21] Di Cesare, A., Castagna, G., Meloni, S. Otranto, D., and Traversa, D. "Mixed trichuroid infestation in a dog from Italy", Parasit. Vectors, Vol. (5), No.1, pp. 128. (2012). [22] Jain, PC. and Jain, A. "General veterinary parasitology", 2nd ed., Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (LTD), Nagpur, pp. 176. (2011). [23] Shapiro, LS. "Pathology and parasitology for veterinary Technicians", 2nd ed. USA. Delmar, Cengage Learning, pp. 199-212. (2010). [24] Taylor, MA., Coop, RL., and Wall, RL. "Veterinary parasitology", 3rd ed., Blackwell publishing, State Avenue, Ames, Iowa, USA, pp. 74, 356-393. (2007). [25] Urquhart, GM., Armour, J., Duncan, JL., Dunn, AM., and Jennings, FW. "Veterinary parasitology" 2nd ed. Scotland. Black Well Publishing, pp. 70-73, 95, 225-250. (2007). [26] Coles, EH. "Veterinary clinical pathology", 4th ed. Phyladelphia, London, Torento: Saunders, W. B. Company, pp.374-430. (1986). [27] Levine, ND. "Veterinary protozoology", Iowa State University Press, Ames; pp.131, 205-228,365- 367. (1985). [28] Kohansal, MH., Fazaeli, A., Nourian, A., Hanillo, A., and Kamali, K. "Dogs’ gastrointestinal parasites and their association with public health in Iran", Journal of Veterinary Research (Pulawy), Vol. 61, No. 2, pp. 189-195. (2017). [29] Mahmud, MAA., Belal, SMS., and Uddin, FMJ." Prevalence of protozoan diseases in pet dogs at district veterinary hospital, Sirajganj, Bangladesh", Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Vol. (12), No. 2, pp.191-196. (2014). [30] Chable, T., Herrera, RAG., Hernández, MH., Torres, JAP., Robertos, NFO., Blitvich, BJ., Baak-Baak, CM., García-Rejón, JE., and Machainwiliams, CI. "Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in domestic dogs in Tabasco, southeastern Mexico", Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet., Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 432-437. (2015). [31] Ogbaje, CI., Ofukwu, RA., and Ajogi, IA. "Zoonotic gastrointestinal parasite burden of local dogs in Zaria, NorthernNigeria: implications for human health", International Journal of One Health, Vol. (1), pp. 32-36. (2015). [32] Szwabe, K. and Błaszkowska, J. "Stray dogs and cats as potential sources of soil contamination with zoonotic parasites", Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, Vol. (24), No. 1, pp.39-43. (2017). [33] Puebla, LEJ., Nunez, FA., Rivero, LR., Hernandez, YR., Garcia, IS., and Millan, IA. "Prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs from Municipality La Lisa, Havana, Cuba", Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology, Vol. (6), No. 5, pp. 250. (2015). [34] Bajalan, MM. "Prevalence of intestinal helminthes in stray dogs of Kalar city / Sulaimani province". Iraqi J. Vet. Med., Vol. (34), No. 1, pp. 151. (2010). [35] Arsalan, SH., Daham, E., AL-Obaidi, QT., and Sulaiman, EG. "Study the percentage of infection with endo and ecto parasites in dogs in Mosul / Iraq", Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Vol. (20), No. 1, pp. 125- 137. (2006). [36] Ashraf, JM. "Study the percentage of infection with intestinal parasites in dogs in salahdin provence", Tikrit Journal of Pure Science, Vol. (20), No. 1, pp. 55-62. (2015). [37] Al-Qaoud, KM., Abdel-Hafez, SK., and Craig, PS. "Canine Echinococcosis in northern Jordan: increased prevalence and dominance of sheep/dog strain", Parasitology Research, Vol. (90), No. 3, pp. 187–191. (2003). [38] Molan, AL. and Saida, LA. "Echinococcosis in Iraq: prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus in stray dogs in Arbil Province", Japan J Med Sci Biol., Vol. (42), No. 4, pp.137-141. (1989). JZS-A Volume 24, Issue 1, June 2022 135 [39] Molan, AL. and Baban, MR. " The prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus in stray dogs in Iraq", J Trop Med Hyg., Vol. (95), No. 2, pp.146-148. (1992). [40] Abdul-Rahman, AA., Daoud, IS., Hassan, SA. , Abul-Eis, ES. , Al-Bashir, NM., and Murad, AM. "The epidemiology of dog parasites in Baghdad (Iraq). 1- Prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus and other gastro-intestinal helminths in stray dogs in Baghdad", Journal of Biological Science Research, Vol. (19), No. 3, pp. 637-645. (1988). [41] Hadi, AM. and Faraj, AA. "Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Helminthes and Protozoa among Stray Dogs in Baghdad",The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Vol. (40), No. 1, pp. 1-4. (2016). [42] Babero, BB. And Al-Dabagh, MA. "The zoonoses of animal parasite in Iraq. XII. The dog as a reservoir for human cestode infections", J Fac Meet. Vol. (5), No. 4, pp. 149-158. (1963). [43] Abul-Eis, ES. "Studies on parasites of public health importance from Mosul, Iraq", master's thesis, Coll. Med. Univ. Mosul. Mosul, Iraq, pp.142. (1983). [44] Tarish, JH., Al-Saqur, IM., Al-Abbassy, SN., and Kadhim, FS. "The prevalence of parasitic helminths in stray dogs in the Baghdad area Iraq", Ann Trop Meet Parasitol., Vol. (80), No. 3, pp. 329-331. (1986). [45] Kohansal, MH., Fazaeli, A., Nourian, A., Haniloo, A., and Kamali, K. "Dogs’ gastrointestinal parasites and their association with public health in Iran" J Vet Res., Vol. (61), No. 2, pp. 189-195. (2017). [46] Beiromvand , M., Akhlaghi , L., Massom, SHF., Meamar, AR., Motevalian, A., Oormazdi, H., and Razmjou, E. "Prevalence of zoonotic intestinal parasites in domestic and stray dogs in a rural area of Iran", Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Vol. (109), No. 1–2, pp. 162-167. (2013). [47] Swadi, HA. "Epidemiological study on giardiasis in dogs in Baghdad province", master's thesis, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad. (2000). [48] Al-Jassim, KBN., Mahmmod, YS., Salem, ZM. , and Al-Jubury, A. "Epidemiological investigation of gastrointestinal parasites in dog populations in Basra province, Southern Iraq". J Parasit Dis., Vol. (41), No. 4, pp.1006–1013. (2017). [49] Hadi, ED., Suleiman, EG., Al-Obadi , QT., and Arslan, SH. " Diagnostic study of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. in stray dogs and cats in Mosul city, Iraq", Iraqi J. Vet. Sci., Vol. (28), No. 1, pp. 19-24. (2014). [50] Khan, W., Nisa, NN., Ullah, H., Ahmad, S., Mehmood, SA., Khan, M., Ahmad, S., Ali, W., Hamid, U., and Anwar, K. "Gastrointestinal helminths in dog feces surrounding suburban areas of Lower Dir district, Pakistan: A public health threat", Braz. J. Biol., Vol. (80), No. 3, pp. 511-517. (2020). [51] Al-Emara, GH. "Epidemiological study of Nematoda in digestive tract of dogs in Basrah area", master's thesis, Coll Vet Med Uni Baghdad, (1999). [52] Sultan, BI. "Epidemiological study of Toxocara canis in najaf region", Ph.D. thesis, Coll. Vet. Med. Univ. Baghdad. (1997). [53] Chiad, AL. "Study of intestinal parasites in stray dogs in Baghdad city", Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, Vol. (7), No. 1, pp. 37-43. (2008). [54] Sowemimo, OA. and Asaolu, SO. "Epidemiology of intestinal helminths parasites of dogs in Ibadan, Nigeria" Journal of Helminthology, pp. Vol. (82), No. 1, 89–93. (2008). [55] Shchelkanov, MY., Tabakaeva, TV., Fomenko, PV., Kim , EM., Tabakaev, AV., and Galkina, IV. "A retrospective study of Uncinaria stenocephala in domestic dogs: Age, sex distribution, and risk factors", Vol. (14), No. 1, 265–269. (2021). [56] Muhamed, TA. and Al-barwary, LTO. "Prevalence of intestinal parasites in the intestine of dogs (Sheep.Keeper, Owned, Pet and Stray) in Duhok Province, Kurdistan Region", J. Vet. Sci. Technol., Vol. (7), No. 6, pp. 1-4. (2016). [57] Benito, A., Carmena, D., Postigo, I., Estibalez, JJ., Martinez, J., and Guisantes, JJA. "Intestinal helminths in dogs in Alava, North of Spain", Rev Iber Parasitol, Vol. (63), No. 3-4, pp. 121-126. (2003). [58] Matalla, F., Khelaifia, W., Lamari, S., and Matalla, S. "Gastrointestinal helminths parasites of dogs in rural areas of the north east of Algeria", Iraqi Journal of veterinary sciences, Vol. (32), No. 1, pp. 93-98 (2018). JZS-A Volume 24, Issue 1, June 2022 136 [59] Paulos, D., Addis, M., Fromsa, A., and Mekibib, B. "Studies on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes of dogs and owners awareness about zoonotic dog parasites in Hawassa Town, Ethiopia", Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, Vol. (4), No. 8, pp. 205-209. (2012). [60] Gharekhani J. "Study on gastrointestinal helminths parasites in pet dogs in Western Iran", Turkiye Parazitol Derg., Vol. (38), pp. 172-176. (2014). [61] Awad, AH. "Epidemiological study of Toxocara canis in Basrah city", master's thesis, College of Veterinary Medicine of Basrah, (2005). [62] Sowemimo, OA. and Ayanniyi, OA. "Gastrointestinal Helminth Parasites of Domestic Dogs in Ilesa, Osun State, Nigeria: A Faecal Examination Survey Study", J Bacteriol Parasitol., Vol. (8), No. 3, pp. 2-5. (2017)