Assessment of Some Clays from Gercus Formation (M. Eocene) for Brick Manufacture Sulaimani Area, NE Iraq


Tola A. Merza

College of Science, University of Sulaimani



Abstract
This study deals with investigating some clay deposits from the upper part of Gercus Formation (Middle Eocene), north-eastern Iraq and their evaluation for brick manufactures. Grain size analyses and Atterberge limits of raw materials have been studied. Chemical analyses show that such materials are containing low percent of SiO2 and A12O3 and high percent of CaCO3. Fourty test tiles were prepared from the clay samples by semi-dry pressing (250 Kg./cm2 and about 8% moisture content) and fired at 700, 800, 900, 1000 and 1100'C. The various characteristics of &e end products prepared from properly selected samples under optimum working conditions are determined.

Keywords:- Clay, Ceramic, Atterberge limits, Semi-dry pressing.



References
[1] Al -Khafaji, S' R,Evaluation of clays from Husainiat Formation for ceramic industries, M. Sc.Thesis (unpublished),1994, university of Baghdad ,142p. (in Arabic).
[2] Al -Nuaimy, M. A, The effect of silica type in the physical and mechanical properties of ceramic bodies as building materials, M.Sc . Thesis (unpublished), 1996 ,University of Baghdad, 135p.
[3]Buday, T., The regional geology of Iraq Stratigraphy and paleogeography , 1996. Editted by I.I.Kassab and S. Z.Jassim, Dar Al- Kutub |Pub. House, 445p.
[4]Bellen, R.c', Dururington, H.v., Wetzel,R. and Morton,D.M,Lexique-,Stratigraphique International, 1959,V.III, Asia,Fasc. 10A,Iruq, Paris, 333p.
[5]Ameen, B.M, Sedimentological study of Gercus Formation, NE Iraq, M.Sc. Thesis, Unpublished, 1998, Baghdad University.
[6]Velde, B., Introduction to clay minerals (chemistry, origins, uses and environmental significance), 1992, Cambridge, 198p.
[7]Grim, R. E, Applied clay mineralogy, 1962,20, Mc Graw hill Book co.Inc. , New York, 422p.
[8] Dondi, M., Fabbri, B. and Yncenzi, S, Raw materials for the heavy-clay industry in
Emila- Romagna and Marche(Central Northern Italy), Geological Carpathicca clays ,International Clay Journals,1992, 1(2), 83-90.
[9] B. 5.1377: Test 7(D), Determination of the particle size distribution, 1967.
[10] B. 5.1377: Test (2b), Subsidiary(one point method)and test 3 , Determination of the plastic limit,l967.
[11]ASTM, Part 17 (C326-76), Test for shrinkage of ceramics, 1982.
[12] ASTM, ,Part 15.02 (C373- 72) water absorption , Bulk density, Apparent specific gravity of fired white ware,1986.
[13]ASTM, Part 13(C133- 55(1961)), Cold crushing strength and modulus of rupture of
refractory brick and shapes, 1969.
[14]Jain, L. C, Anew theory of lime Bursting in Bricks, clay craft structure ceramic,1980, 43, 8.
[15] Gonsales, I., Leon, M. and Galan, E., Assessment of the ceramic uses clay from
southern Spain from compositional, drying and forming data, Geotogical
Carpathica clays, International Clay Journal, 1992, 1(2), 97 -100.
[17]Bill, F., Dondi, M., Fabbri,B. and Morandi,N., Carbonatic clays for the production of porous ceramic tiles by fast single firing, Geological Carpithica
International Clay Journal, 1992, 1(2),91-95.
[18] Al-Chokhachi, S. A. S. and Faik,S. M, Cracking of Bricks, 1971,Building research Center, Baghdad, Iraq, R. P7171.
[19]Iq. S. 25/1969, Clay Building Bricks.