Prevalence of Hepatitis-B and Hepatitis-C among Blood Donors in Sulaimani City


Mohammad O. Mohammad

College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani





Abstract
This is a prospective study conducted inJanuary-May 2002'.Blood Samples from l514 healthy blood
donors were screened for hepatitis B and hipatitis C in Sulaimani main blood bank' Enzyme Linked
Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA) technique was used to detect Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) and
Anti Hepatitis C Virus Antibody (Anti HCV Ab). the prevalence rate of HBsAg and anti-HCV Ab was
23%,1:2 o/o respectively in the blood donors

Key Words : Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Sulaimani,  blood donors



References

l. Miller RFI, Kaneko S, Chung CT, et al: Compact organization of the hepatitis B virus genom e. Hepatologt 1989, 9:322'
2. Seeger C, Canem D, Virmus fm, ef al: Biochemical and genetic evidence for the
hepa:titis 6 virus replication strategy' Science' 1986'232:477 '
3. Jay H. Hoofnagle,'Ku..n f. finds-ay; Acute'viral irepatitis' Lee Goldman A'J' Claude Bennett, CECI, text book of Medicine,1999'786'795' rr^-^^rrrr^ D.
4. Carman W, Thomas H, Domingo E, et al: Viral genetic variation: Hepatitis B virus as a clinical example. Lancet 1993, 341,349'
5. S De Meyer, Z.J.Gong, W.Suwandhi, et al; Organ and species specificity of hepatitis B
virus infection, Journ-at oYvirat hepatitis,1997 ' 4' t11-111
6. Kenneth E. Sherm;n; vifif hepatiiis. GI I LIVER SECRETS, 1997,97-102.
7. Seeff LB: Natural history of viral hepatitis, type C. Semin.Gastrointest Dis 1995' 6:20'
8. N.D.C. Finlayson, P.C. Hayes; disease of liver and biliary system' DAVIDSON'S
FrinciplesandPracticeofMedicine,lgthEd.2003,Tag.T14,
9. Schreiber GB, Bush M.P, Klein man SH, et al risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infection. N Engl J Med 1996, 334:1685'
10. Dienstag JL: Non-Ao non-B t.pumit. I' Recognition, epidemiology' and clinical
features. II. Experimental transmissior- putative virus agents and markers and
prevention. Gastiaenterolog,t 1983, 85 :43 9' 7 43'
11. Barrera JM et al: Persistent hepatitis C virernia after acute self-limiting post transfusion hepatitis C. Hepatolog 1995, 2l :639"
12. Conry-cantilena, Mark van Raden M.A, Joan Gibble, et al: Routes of infection'
viremia, and liver disease in blood donors-found to have hepatitis c virus infection' l/Engt J Med 1996,334:1691.
13. Hwang SJ: Hepatitis C virus infection: an overview Miffobiol Immunol Infect' 2001 Dec; 34(4):227-34.
14. CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION: RCCOMMENdATiONS fOT
prevention and content of hepatitis C virus 111CV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. MMWR 1998, 47 :1,
15. Alter MJ et al: The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in the United States. Gastroenterol
Clin North Am 1994,23:437 '
16. Atter MJ, Denna Kruszon Moran, omana V. et al: The prevalence ?f rr:,ji'C virus
infection in the United States, 198S through 1994. N Engt J Med1999,34l:556'
17. Seeff LB, Buskell-Bales Z, Wright EC,-et al: Long-term mortality after transfusiol-
association ,on-e, ,",-g hepatitis' N Engl J Med 1992'327:19A6'
18.  Consensus Statement: EASL intematiol'ral consensus conference on hepatitis C' J Hepatol1.999,30:956,
19. Donahue JG, Munoz A., Ness pM., et al: The declining risk of post-transfusion hepatitis
C virus infection. N Engl J Med1992,327:369'
20. Shakil AO et al: Volunteer blood ionoit *itf, antibody to hepatitis C virus: Clinical'
biochemicat, uirotogi., and histologic features. Ann Intern Med 1995' 123:330'
21. Houghton et al: MJlecular Uiofogy oiitt;t epatitis C viruses: Implioations for diagnosis'
development and control of viral dis ease. Hipatologt l-991, t4:381.
22. pennin F, Dubuisson J, Rey FA, ; ;ii'stru.t al biology of hepatitis c virus' Hepatologt 20CI4, 39 :5 -19'
23. M. L Memon, M. A. Meman; Hepatitis c: an epidemiological review' Journal af viral Hepatitis, 20A2, 9, 84-100'
24. Giles R.E., Burgess C., Gilmore M., et al; An evaluation of the bioelisa HBsAg colour study. Medical Devices Agency Evaluation Report, 1999, MDA/99/68, Nov.
25. S.K Iwanga, Cho-yook Tye. O. Ayemi; Teaching health statistics, lesson &seminar out lines. 2nd edition , WHO-Geneva 1999,
26. Seem LB (ed): Hepatitis C. Semin Liver Dis 1995, 15: l .
27. Adrian LWF Eddleston: acute hepatitis, RL Souhami, J Moxham. Text book of Medicine, 1994,626.
28. Wang CS, Chang TT, Yao WJ, Chou: Comparison of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus prevalence and risk factors in a community-based study.
a. PMID•. 12287878 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].
29. Butsashvili M, Tsertsvadze T, and McNutt LA: Prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis and HIV in Georgian blood donors.Eur J Epidemiol. 2001; 
30. Strickland GT, Elhefni H, Salman T, Role of hepatitis C infection in chronic liver disease in Egypt. : 12452500[Pub Med-indexed for MEDLINE] .
31. Fathalla SE: Hepatitis C infection among Egyptian blood donors in the eastern Saudi Arabia, PMID 12287878 [Pub Med - indexed for MEDLINE].
32. Fareci P. . a Lack of protective immunity against re infection with hepatitis C virus. Science 1992, 258:135.
33. Simmonds P: Variability of hepatitis C virus. Hepatology 1995, 21:570. 34. Margolis HS et al: Prevention of hepatitis B virus transmission by immunization: An economic analysis of current recommendations. JAMA 1995, 274:1201.
35. Centers for Disease Control: Protection against viral hepatitis: Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). 1990, MMPVR 39 (No. RR-2):l.
36. Tong MJ, El-Farra NS, Reikes AR, et al: Clinical outcomes after transfusionassociated hepatitis C. N Engl J Med 1995, 332:1463.
37. Takahashi M et al: Natural history of chronic hepatitis C, Am J Gastroenterol 1993, 88:240.
38. Soldan K, Barbara JA, Ramsay ME: Estimation of the risk of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus infectious donations entering the blood supply in England, 1993-2001. vox sang. 2003 May;  
39. Van Der Poel CL et al: Hepatitis C virus six years on. Lancet 1994, 344:1475.
40. Purcell RH: Hepatitis viruses: Changing patterns of human disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994, 91:2401.
41. Through universal childhood vaccination: Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP)t 1990, MMWR 40 (No. 
42. Center for Disease Control and Prevention: Recommendations to prevent hepatitis B virus transmission, United States. MMWR 1995, 44:574.
43. Center for Disease Control and Prevention: Hepatitis B virus: A comprehensive strategy for eliminating transmission in the United States. Advisory Committee (ACIP). Morb Mort Week Rep 40 (No. 1991.
44. Sola R, Cruz De Castro E, Hombrados M, et al; [Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in diffèrent counties of Catalonia, Spain: cross-sectional study] ,Med Clin (Barc). 2002, Jun 22; 119(3):90-5. [Article in Spanish].