Direct In Vitro Regeneration of Fig (Ficus carica L. CV. Benaty) from Apical and Lateral Buds

Rafail S. Toma and Yousif S. Tamer
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Duhok, Iraq
Ministry of Education, Iraqi Kurdistan Region


Abstract

Benaty fig plant was successfully propagated by tissue culture technique and a
reproducible and reliable micropropagation protocol was developed through this
investigation. At initiation stage, healthy aseptic cultures from lateral and terminal bud
explants of about 85% were achieved when the explants were treated with 0.15% HgCl 2
for 7 minutes. A combined solution of ascorbic acid and citric acid (100 and 150 mgl -1 )
was successfully used to overcome the problem of phenolic compounds exudation from
the explants into the culture media. At shoot multiplication stage, the addition of 2.0 mgl -
1 from both BA and kinetin gave the highest number of shoots per explant estimated at
2.66 and 3.33 shoots/ explant respectively. As well as, activated charcoal promoted
shoots multiplication in all multiplication parameters. The highest number of shoots per
explants (5 shoots/ explant) was obtained on MS medium containing 4.0 gl -1 AC. At root
formation stage, the interaction treatment of full MS salt strength with the use of 0.25
mgl -1 NAA gave the highest rooting percentage reaching 87.5%. The highest number of
roots (18.5 roots/ explant) was recorded as well from the combined treatment of full MS
salt strength with the use of 0.25 mgl -1 NAA. While the longest roots (6.66 cm) were
recorded from the interaction treatment of half salt strength and 0.50 mgl -1 IBA. The
addition of activated charcoal to the rooting culture medium decreased the rooting
percentage from 87.5% at control treatment to 50% and 62.5% when 2.0 and 4.0 gl -1 AC
were respectively added. The in vitro propagated fig plantlets were gradually moved in a
successful way from lab to field conditions with 95% survival rate.

Key Words:
Ficus carica L., in vitro, micropropagation, activated charcoal

REFERENCES

·         Abdul, K. S. (1987). Plant Growth Regulators. (In Arabic). Salahaddin Univ. Ministry of Higher education and scientific Research. IRAQ.

·         Ahuja, M. R. (1991). Woody Plant Biotechnology, p. 373. Plenum Press, New York.

·         Al-Rifae´e, M. A. T. and S. A. Al-Shobaki (2002).Twenty one century techniques for plant improvement by Tissue Culture. Cairo: Dar Al-Fikr Al-Arabi. (In Arabic).

·         Bonga, J. M. and D. J. Durzan, 1987. Cell and tissue culture in forestry, Vol. 1, 2 and 3.

·         Debergh, P. C. and R. H. Zimmerman (1991). Micropropagation. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

·         George, E. F., A. H. Michael and D. K. Greek-Jan. (2008). Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture (3rd Edition).Vol. 1. The Background. Springer.

·         Horner M., J. A. McComb and H. E. Street. (1977). Ethylene production and plantlet formation by Nicotiana anthers cultured in the presence and absence of charcoal. J Exp  Bot; 28: 1366–1372.

·         Fridborg G., M. Pedersen, L. E. Landstrom and T. Eriksson (1978). The effect of activated charcoal on tissue cultures: adsorption of metabolites inhibiting morphogenesis. Physiol Plant; 43:104-106.

·         Komlekcioglu, S., A. B. Kuden, Y. A. Kacar and M. A. Kamberoglu. (2007). Meristem culture of two fig cultivars in Turkey. Fruits. 62(2): 125-131. www.edpsciences.org/fruits.

·         Maheshwaran, M., R. Gnanam and R. Seerangasamy. (2000). Plant Tissue Culture ,Principle and Practices. CPMB.

·         Mohammed, A. K. and M. A. Al-Younis (1991). Fundamentals of Plant Physiology  (3rd Part). College of Agriculture, Baghdad University, Iraq (In Arabic).

·      Mustafa, N. S. and R. A. Taha (2012). Influence of Plant Growth Regulators and Subculturing on In Vitro Multiplication of Some Fig (FicusCarica) Cultivars. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 8(8): 4038-4044.


·         Pan M. J. and J. van Staden (1998).The use of charcoal in in vitro culture-a review.Plant Growth Regul.26: 155– 163.

·         Pasqual, M. and E. A. Ferreira (2007). Micropropagation of fig tree (Ficuscarica L.). In Jain and H. Haggman (eds). Protocols for Micropropagation of Woody Trees and Fruits, 409-416.

·         Saleh, M. S. (1990). Physiology of Plant Growth Regulators. (In Arabic). Salahaddin Univ., Ministry of Higher education and Scientific Research. IRAQ.

·         SAS. 2001. SAS/ STAT User’s Guide for Personal Computers. Release 6.12. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA.

·         Sharma, T., M. Modgil and M. Thakur (2007). Factors affecting induction and development of in vitro rooting in apple rootstocks. Indian journal of experimental biology, 45: 824-829.