Direct In Vitro Regeneration of Fig (Ficus carica L. CV. Benaty) from Apical and Lateral Buds

Rafail S. Toma and Yousif S. Tamer
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Duhok, Iraq
Ministry of Education, Iraqi Kurdistan Region


Benaty fig plant was successfully propagated by tissue culture technique and a
reproducible and reliable micropropagation protocol was developed through this
investigation. At initiation stage, healthy aseptic cultures from lateral and terminal bud
explants of about 85% were achieved when the explants were treated with 0.15% HgCl 2
for 7 minutes. A combined solution of ascorbic acid and citric acid (100 and 150 mgl -1 )
was successfully used to overcome the problem of phenolic compounds exudation from
the explants into the culture media. At shoot multiplication stage, the addition of 2.0 mgl -
1 from both BA and kinetin gave the highest number of shoots per explant estimated at
2.66 and 3.33 shoots/ explant respectively. As well as, activated charcoal promoted
shoots multiplication in all multiplication parameters. The highest number of shoots per
explants (5 shoots/ explant) was obtained on MS medium containing 4.0 gl -1 AC. At root
formation stage, the interaction treatment of full MS salt strength with the use of 0.25
mgl -1 NAA gave the highest rooting percentage reaching 87.5%. The highest number of
roots (18.5 roots/ explant) was recorded as well from the combined treatment of full MS
salt strength with the use of 0.25 mgl -1 NAA. While the longest roots (6.66 cm) were
recorded from the interaction treatment of half salt strength and 0.50 mgl -1 IBA. The
addition of activated charcoal to the rooting culture medium decreased the rooting
percentage from 87.5% at control treatment to 50% and 62.5% when 2.0 and 4.0 gl -1 AC
were respectively added. The in vitro propagated fig plantlets were gradually moved in a
successful way from lab to field conditions with 95% survival rate.

Key Words:
Ficus carica L., in vitro, micropropagation, activated charcoal


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