Impact of Some Pesticides on Total Counts of Soil Non-Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria, Particularly Azotobacter sp

Nashmeel Saeed Khudhur and Abdul-ghany Omer Ismaeel Sarmamy
Department of Environmental Science, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Kurdistan Region, Iraq



Abstract

A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of glyphosate herbicide (n-
phosphonomethyl glycine), mancozeb fungicide ([[1,2-ethanediylbis- [carbamodithioato]]
(2-)] manganese mixture with [[1,2-ethanediylbis- [carbamodithioato]]-(2- )] zinc) and
diazinon insecticide (O, O-diethyl O-[6- methyl-2- (1-methylethyl)- 4-pyrimidynyl]), three
soil orders and two soil moisture contents (50% and 100% of field capacity) and their
combinations on soil total non-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria particularly
Azotobacter sp. counts. This experiment last for two months from the 6 th of Jun until the
8 th of August 2011 with five sampling periods at biweekly intervals. Factorial experiment
(4×3×2) with Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and three replications was used
and the means were compared using Revised Least Significant Differences (R.LSD) at
the level of significant of 0.05. Significant results were obtained at the last two scheduled
period’s sampling of 4 th and 5 th , and the results showed that: Mancozeb fungicide
decreased total Azotobacter sp.; Diazinon insecticide decreased both total non-symbiotic
nitrogen-fixing bacteria and total Azotobacter sp.; Agholan soil (order Entisols) showed
the greatest increase in soil total non-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria. 50% soil
moisture content revealed the greatest reduction total Azotobacter sp. while, 100% soil
moisture content showed the greatest increase in soil total Azotobacter sp. count. The
combinations among: glyphosate, Agholan soil and 100% moisture combination showed
the greatest reduction in total non-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria and total
Azotobacter sp.

Key Words:
Soil pollution, Pesticides, Non-symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, Azotobacter sp.

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