Snake Bites in Sulaimani – Iraq


  • Tahir A. Husen Hawramy College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author



Snake bites in Sulaimani, Future planning for producing specific ant venom


A study of the characteristics of snake bites in Sulaimani Governorate was undertaken during April 1997 to October 1997. It is found that all signs of envenomation were seen and the most affected age groups by snake bites were between 11-20 years. Snaketrite were more frequent among rnale than fr:mal l'amrers. More cornmon iri iemperate ereas. Most features were necrotising and vascultoxic than myotoxic .No significant differences found between the seven months which were involved in the study, fleither between the four affected sites ofthe body according to numhers ofthe cases.


John Macleod.Davidson pnnciples and practice of medicine.Churchill Livingston ,12th Edition,London,2000 ;528 .

H.Alistair Reid.Venomous bites and stings in Mid Africa and Middle East,Post graduate doctor, l980;3:234 9.

T.H.Spata.Non venomous snakebites with out envenomation in Brazil .Rev.inst.Med.Trop.Sau Paulo1992;34:499 503. DOI:

Derezende NA, Tores FM,Dias MB"South America Rattle snake with out envenomation,Toxicon 7998;36:2429 32 .

Russeli FE.Snake venom poisoning,Philadelphia,JB Lipincott, 1 974. DOI:

SK.sutherland.Management of venomous bites and stings,medicine intemational 1984;2:39i 6.

Aroch.I,Harras S.Retrospective study of epidemiological,clinical,hematoiogical and biochemical finding in 109 dogs poisned by Vipera Xanthana Pa1estinae.Vet.Res.l999;144: 532 5 . DOI:

SK. Sutherland.Management of venomous bites,Med.Inte,r. I 9 84 ;2:39 16 .

Minton SA.Venornous snake bites diseases,Springfield,LlSA,l980 .

Pozio E.Venomous snake bites in Italy, Trop Med.Parasitol.193S;39::62 66.

Wall G,Padre L,Turzon ML.Bites by phillipine Cobra:an important cause of death among rice farmers,Toxicon 1989;35:33 +3.

Than Than,Francis N,Tin NU Swe.Contribution of focal hemorrhage and microvascular fibrin deposition in fatal envenomation by Russels Viper [RVS) in Burma,Acta Tropica 1989;46:23 38 . DOI:

Phillips RE,Theankston RD,Warsell DA.Paralysis,rhabdomyolysis caused by RVS in Srilanka,QJ Mmed.19988;688:6911 715.

Jorge MT,Riebero LA,Oconnel JC.Prognostic factors for amputation in the case of envenomation by snakes,Ann.Trop.Med.And Parasitoi. 1 999;93 :40 I 8.

Chandler HM, hurral JG.A new enzyme immunoassay suitable for field use and its application in a snake venom detection kits,Clin.Chirin.Acta 1982; 121:225 8. DOI:

Jorge MT,Ribero LA,The epidemiological and clinical picture of an accidental bite by South America Rattle snake,Rev.Inst..Trop.Med.Sau Paulo 1992;34:347 54.

Rain EL.An epidemiological shrdy of snakebite in Papua New Guunea Mmed.J.Aust.i991;154:2666 8"

TilburyCR,BrenchWR.ObsewationsonthesftheSouthemburrowingaspinnatai,S'Afr.Med'J.19899;75:327 31.

TransRR.SouthAmericansnakebiteinBrazil::87cases,sco"Trop.MedHyg.l992;86:562 3i.

Riberio LA,Pnorto G.,Gorge MT.. .Bites by the Corubid snake,Toxicon 1999;37::943 8. DOI:

Hansdak SG,Lallar KS,Pokharel P.A clinicoepidemiological study of snake bite in Nepal,Trop.Dactirc 1998;78:223 6" DOI:

Nnishiokas de A.Siviera PV.A climcoepidemiological study of 292 cases of lanse headed viper bite in Brazil,Trop.Hyg. 1998;23:123 7.

Haviv J,Huerta M,Shpilberg O.Poisor:ous animals:bites in Israeli defence forces,Puplic Hlth.Rev' 1998;26:237 45.

Ai Harbi N.Epidemiological and clinical differences of snake bites among children and adult in SW $.Arabia,Toxicon 1.998:27::45 9.

Iifshiz lv{,Kaplushnik Jjj,BEN harosh M.DIC after Ceraster Vipera envenomation in 3 years old child,Toxicon 2000;38:1559933 8. DOI:

Cowin DJ,Wright t,Cowin JA.Long term complicatian of snakebites ,JJ.South Or&oped.Assoc.l998;7 :205 11.

Ribeiro LA.Jorge MT.Bites by snake in genus space Bothrops:3139 cases.Rev.Soc.Braz.Med'Trop.1997;30:4415 84.






How to Cite

Snake Bites in Sulaimani – Iraq. (2003). Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani - Part A, 7(1), 105-109.