Tectonic and Depositional History of Upper Cretaceous Tanjero Formations in Sulaymanya Area, NE-Iraq


  • Kamal Haji Karim College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author
  • Ali Mahmood Surdashy College of Oil and Minerals, Koya University, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author




Tanjero formation, Geologic history, Cretaceous tectonic, Foreland basin, Zagros, Kurdistan geology, Sulaimaniya area, Shiranish Formation


The basin of (Upper Cretaceous) Tanjero Formation is combined (tectonically) with that of the underlying Shiranish Formation and named Upper Cretaceous Zagros Early Foreland Basin instead of previous miogeosyncline and trench. In this basin Tanjero Formation is deposited in the near shore area in front of southwest advancing positive land of Iranian plate. This near shore area is called Upper Cretaceous Depocenter, whereas, the underlying Shiranish Formation a summed to be deposited in the deeper central part of the basin, which is called Upper Cretaceous Basin Center. The advancing of the hinterland (Iranian plate front) is very clear from southwest position changing of the shelf for about 20km. The shelf of lower sequence was near the Iranian border during Upper Campanian while it migrated to the area around Chuarta and Mawat Towns during middle Maastrichtian. It was inferred that most part of the formation is deposited by forced regression during collision of Iranian and Arabian plate. During this regression both flysch and molasses facies are deposited.


-Buday, T. In: Regional Geology of Iraq Stratigraphy, LLM Kassab and S.Z. Jassim (Eds) D. G. Geol. Surv. Min, Invest. Pub1.1980, l, 445p.

-Buday, T. and Jassim, S.Z. The Regional geology of Iraq: Tectonism Magmatism, and Metamorphism, I.L Kassab and M.J. Abbas (Eds), 1987 ' Baghdad, 445 p.

-Bellen, R. C. Van, Dunnington, H. V., Wetzel, R. and Morton, D. Lexique Stratigraphique, International. Asie, Iraq,.1959, 3c. 10a, 333 p.

-Karim, K.H. Basin analysis of Tanjero Formation in Sulaimaniya area, NE-Iraq. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Sulaimani, 2004, 135p.

a] Karim , H. K.and Surdashy,A.M..Pleocurrent analysis of Upper Cretaceous Zagros

Foreland basin:A case Study for Tanjero Formation in Sulaimaniya area , NE.

Iraq.Iraqi Journal of Earth Science. 2005, 5(l), 3A-44

Karim, K.H.. A conglomerate bed as a possible lower boundary of Qulqula

Formation, from Chusrta-Said Sadiq area, NE-Iraq. Kurdistan Academician

Journal (KAJ), University of Sulaimani ,2003a,2(l) Part A..

Jassim, S. Z. and Al-Hassan Petrography and Origin of the Mowat and Peniuin

Igneows Complexes. Jour. Geol. Soc. Iraq. Special Issue on 4th Iraqi Geol. Conf., Baghdad,1977.

Kettaneh, Y. A. and Sadik, A. t. Mineralogy and geochemistry of Shiranish

Formation, Northlraq, Iournal of Geological Society, 1989, 22(1),.

- Lawa, F.A., Al-Karadakhi, A. I, and lsmaii, K. M. An interfirryering af the Upper

Cretaceaus rocks in Clatarta-Mat4)ct Rsgion (NE-Iraq). Iraqi Geolo. .Iour.,1998 3 1(2),.

-i,{inas, H. A. A. Sequence stratigraphic anal,l,sis of the Upper Cretaceous succession

of central and Norhern iraq. unpubl. Ph. D. Thesis, univ" Baghdad. 188p. 19g7

-Marouf, Z.M. D1'natnic Er.olution of the sedimentary Basins in ttie Northern Iraq

and Hydrocarbon Formation, Migration ancl entrapment. Ph. D. Thesis, Llniversity of Baghdad .213p, 7999.

a]-Karim, K, H. and Surciashy, A. M. Paleocurrent analysis of Upper Cretaceous

Zagros Foreland Basin: A case study for Tanjero Formation in Sulaimanyia

area. NE- Iraq ., Iraqi Journal of Earth Science, 2805a,5(l),pp.30-44.

-Bhattachary-a, J. P. and Willis, B.J, Lowstand Delta in the Frontier Formation,

Powder River Basin, Wyoming, Implications for sequence stratigraphic Models"

.AAPG Bulletin,2001 ,185 (2). Pp.294-294,.

-Bates. R. L., and Jackson. J.A, (ed.). Glossary of Ceology, 2ed, American

Geological Institute,lgS 0, 7 49 p..

Einsele, G. Sedimentary Basin: Evolution, Facies and Sediment Budget.2"d ed,

Springer,Verlage tserlin 7 92p, 20A0.

-Mial, A.D" Collision related foreland basin in: Tectonics of Sedimentary Basin

(Eds. R.V. Ingersol and C. J. Busby) pp 393-424. Black Science, Oxford, 1995.

[l5]-Doyie, P., Bennett, x4.R. and Baxter. A.N. The Key io the Earlh Hisrory: An

introductiotr to Stratigraphy, 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons. I'lew York. 293p. 2001.

-Abdel-Kireem, M. R. Planktonic Foraminifera and stratigraphy, of the Tanjero

Formction (Maastrichtian), NE- Iraq. Micropaleontology, 1986b, 32 {3}, pp.2l5-231..

-Costa, E., and Yenderville, B. Diaperism in convergent settings triggered by

hinterland inch-out of viscons development: A hypothesis from Modeling.In: Koy

and iVlanckteloi,v (editors).Tectonic Modeling . A volume in honor of Hans

Ramberg, AAPG Memoir i93, 276p. 2001.

- Haq, B. U, Sequefice str*tig{aphy, seo level change rtrrd signiJicancefar deep sea.

Special. Publs. int. Ass. Sedimenr, 1991, ]2. pp.l2-j9.

-Posamentier, H.W , Allen, G.F., James, D, P. and Tesson, M. Forced regr.ession in

sequence strZfigrapkic fratnev,ork; concept,s, examples, antl exploratiott

Significance. AAPG Bulletin, 1992,79 (l) pp" 168'/-17A9.

-Ainsworth, R, B. and Crolviey, S.F. Wave-dominated near slrare sedimentatian

and "forced" regression: post ctbandoned Jacie,r, Great Limestone cyclothem,

Stainmore, UK. Jour" of Geological Society, London, 1994 ,tSI (5), pp.68l-695..

-Dickinson, W.R.Plate Tectonic Model of (ieos,vnclines. Earth Science Letters,

, vol. 2A, pp.165-174..

-Jaza, l, LI. Sedimentary facies analysis of the Tanjero Clastic Formation in

Sulaimaniya clistrict, northeast lraq. Linpubl. MSc thesis, salahaddin Universitv, 121p. 1992.

-Nunran, N. M. S. I plate feclonic scenario far ihe Phanerozoic succession in iraq.Iraqi Geologicai Journal, 1997, 30(2), pp.85-110,.



How to Cite

Tectonic and Depositional History of Upper Cretaceous Tanjero Formations in Sulaymanya Area, NE-Iraq. (2005). Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani - Part A, 8(1), 47-62. https://doi.org/10.17656/jzs.10134

Most read articles by the same author(s)