The Risk of Bacterial Contamination in Hen Eggs of Sulaimani Poultries
Keywords:Eggs, Contamination, Bacteria
To evaluate the risk of bacterial contamination and the penetrability of some pathogens through the shell, light brown fertile and brown infertile eggs were subjected to microbiological analyses. The benefit of using 70% ethanol as a proposed disinfectant was assessed also. Non disinfected infertile eggs showed higher contamination with both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, anaerobic were higher (shells: 8.7.x 102, albumen: 0.28 x 102, yolk: 0.97 x 102 cfu/gm or ml). Disinfecation reduced contamination on shells (for fertile eggs: 85.1% aerobic and 54.4% anaerobic bacteria, for infertile: 65% aerobic and 47.7% anaerobic bacteria). There was no reduction in interior components but the isolation of bacteria from interior components mav belong to a contamination prior to disinfection. Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed higher penetrability when tested artificially in all types of eggs followed by Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus cwreus and Escherichia coli respectively regardless whether eggs were disinfected or not. Fertite and intèrtile eggs of Sulaimani poultries were within permissive hygienic quality.
Duguid, J. P. and North, R. A. E. Eggs and Salmonella food poisoning; an evaluation. J. Med. Microbiol. 1991, 34, 65-72.
Harry, E. G. Some observations on bacterial contents of the ovary and the oviduct of the fowl. BE Poult sci. 1963, 4, 63-90.
Brooks. J. and Tailor D. I, Eggs and egg products. G. B. Dep. Sci. Ind. Res. Board, Spec. Rep. Food Invest. 1955, 60.
Board, R. G. and Tranter, H. S. 1995 the microbiology of eggs. In: W. J. Stadelman
and Coterill O. J. (eds) Egg Science and technology. 4 th ed. Haworth Press Inc. New York.
Hains R. B. Observ'ations on the bacterial flora of the hens' eggs, with description of a new species of Proteus and Pseudomonas causing rot in eggs. J. Hyg 1938, 38, 338-355.
Board, P. A. and Board R. G. A diagnostic key for identifying organisms recovered from rotten eggs. BF. Poult. Sci. 1968, 9, 1 11-120.
Moats, W. A. Classification of bacteria from commercial egg washers and washed and unwashed eggs. Appt. Envirin. Microbiol. 1980, 40, 710-714.
Sparks, N. H. C. and Board, R. G Bacterial penetration of the recently oviposited shell of hens' eggs. Aust. Vet. J. 1985, 62, 169-170.
Rahn, H. and Paganelli, C. V. Gas exchange in avian eggs. Poult. Sci. 1981, 61, 2012-2021.
Board, R. G. The avian egg shell. A resistance network. J. Appl. Bacterial. 1980, 48, 303-313.
l l . Robinson, D. S. and Monsey, J. B. The composition of proposed sub unit structure of egg white-ovomucin. Biochem. J. 1975, 147, 55-62.
Tranter, H. S. and Board, R. G. The inhibition of vegetative out growth and division from spores of Bacillus cereus T by hen egg albumen. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 1982, 52, 67-74.
Board, R. Cl.; Loseby, S. and Miles, V. R. A note on microbial growth on egg shells. BF. Poult. sci. 1979, 20, 413-420.
Lock, J. L.; Dolman, J. and Board, R. G. Observations on the mode of bacterial infection of hens' eggs. FEMS microbiology letters. 1968, 100, 71-730.
Thorns, C. J. Bacterial food-born zoonoses. Rev. Sci. Tech. 2000, 19, 226-239.
Cast RK. and Beard, C. W. Production of Salmonella enteritidis-contaminated eggs by experimentally infected hens. Avian dis. 1990, 34, 438-446.
Bichler, L. A.; Nagaraja, K. V. and Halvorson, D. A. Salmonella enteritidis in eggs, cloacal swap specimens and internal organs of experimentally infected White Leghorn chickens. Am. J vet Res. 1996, 57, 479-495.
Food and Drug Administration, Division of Microbiology, Center for food safety and applied nutrition. Biological and analytical Manual. Published by association of official analytical chemists, Suit 400, 2200 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22201-3301.
Krieg, N. R. and Holt, J. G. 1984 Bergy's manual of systematic bacteriology. Vol. 2, Williums and Wilkins Company, Baltimore.
Steel, R. G. D. and Torrie, J. H. 1980 Principles and procedures of Statistics. A biometrical approach, 2 nd edn. McGraw-Hill Book Co. New York.
Milakovic-Novak, L. and Prukner, E. Hygiene levels of eggs. Options Mediterraneennes, Ser. A/n 0 7, 1990, 239-242.
Smeltzer, T. L; Orange, K.; Peel, B. and Runge, G. Bacterial penetration in floor and nest box eggs from meat and layer birds. Aust. Vet. J., 1979, 55, 592-593.
USDA 1991 Criteria for shelf life of refrigerated liquid egg products. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, Poultry Division, Grading Branch, Washington, DC.
Saeed, E. S. and Koons, C. W. Growth and heat resistance of Salmonella enteritidis in refrigerated and abused eggs. J. Food Prot., 1993, 56, 927-931.
Copyright (c) 2005 Bahrouz M. A. Al-Jaff
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.