Improving the Production of Well Irrigated Cauliflower (Brassica OleraceaL. Var. Botrytis,Cv. Snowball Y. Imp) by Foliar Spraying of some Growth Regulators


  • Caser G. Abdel College of Agriculture, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author



Irrigation, IBA, GA3, Cauliflower, Growth Regulators


Three different experiment were conducted on Snowball Y. IMP Cauliflower Cultivar. Seeds were sown in seedbed to produce transplants. The obtained transplants were planted on furrows, and then they were sprayed twice, 2 weeks after transplanting and 4 months latter with either gibberellic acid (GA3) at rates of 0.0, 20, 30 and 40mg.l-1, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) at rates of 0.0, 20, 30 and 40mg.l-1, or naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at rates of 0.0, 20, 30 and 40mg.l-1 to improve the production of snowball Y. IMP cauliflower cultivar which was irrigated whenever 25% of soil water capacity is depleted to a soil depth of 30cm. The results revealed that snowball Y. IMP cauliflower cultivar required supplementary irrigation of 327.6 mm, besides 254.3 mm rainfalls, during the entire growing season. GA3 application substantially increased the yield of cauliflower particularly 40 mg.l-1 which gave  the highest yield (3.65 kg.m-2), as compared to check (2.44 kg.m-2). Regression analysis displayed that cauliflower yield responses to GA3 application could be estimated by the following positive linear equation (Yield kg.m-2 = 2.35836 + 0.0313786(GA3rate)). IBA application substantially increased the yield of cauliflower particularly 40 mg.l-1 which gave the highest yield (7.61 kg.m-2) as compared to untreated control (5.74 kg.m-2). Regression analysis displayed that cauliflower yield responses to IBA application could be estimated by the following cubic equation (Yield kg.m-2  = 5.7375 + 0.599098(IBA rate) - 0.0436278(IBA rate)**2 + 0.0007442(IBA rate)**3). NAA application  substantially increased the yield of cauliflower particularly 30 mg.l-1 which gave the highest yield (3.15 kg.m-2 ) as compared to check (1.4 kg.m-2). Regression analysis displayed that cabbage yield responses to NAA application could be estimated by the following positive linear equation (Yield kg.m-2 = 1.85084 + 0.0377673(NAA rate).


- Mills, H. A. Vegetable Crops. January 2000 Revised 2001.

- Sadik S. and J. L. Ozbun Histological changes in the shoot tip of cauliflower during floral induction. Canadian Journal of Botany 1967, 45, 955-959. DOI:

- Home. Cabbage Brassica oleracea (Capitata Group).Commercial Vegetable Production Guides. Oregon University. Last revised Agust, 2004, 6.

- Loy, J. B. Hormonal regulation of cell division in the primary elongating meristems of shoots. In Mechanism and Control of Cell Division. Eds T. L. Rost and E. M. Gifford, Dowden, Hutchson and Ross. Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, 1977. 92-110.

- Jacqmard, A.. Early effect of gibberellic acid on mitotic activity and DNA synthesisin apical bud of Rudbeeckia bicolor. Physiol. Veg.1968, 6, 409-416.

- Jacobs, W. P. Regulation and differentiation of xylem around a wound. International Review of Cytology1970, 28, 239-273. DOI:

- Ludwig-Muller J. and W. Helgenberg. Uptake and transport of indole-3-butyric acid. 1995. 147, 351-354. DOI:

- Zolman B. K., A Yoderl and B. Bartel.Genetic analysis of Indole-3-butyric acid responses in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals four mutant classes. Genetic Society of America 2000. pp17. DOI:

- Ringo P. Plant Hormones: Part 8, A Basic Botany Series. Adepted from : The nature of life.

l2006 McGraw-Hil.

- Yang, T., D. M. Law, P. J. Davies. Magnitude and kinetics of stem elongation induced by exogenous indole-3-acetic acid in intact light-grown pea seedlings. Plant Physiology 1993, 102, 717-724. DOI:

- Poincelot R. P. Sustainable Horticulture: Today and Tomorrow. 2004, P728 1- Pub Printice Hall.

- Salter, P. J., I. E. Currah and R. J. Fellows,. Further studies on the effect of plant density, spatial arrangement and time of harvest on yield and root size in carrot. Journal of Agricultural Science Cambridge 1980, 94, 465-478. DOI:

- Wiebe H. J. Influence of transplant characteristics and growing conditions on curd size (buttoning) of cauliflower. Acta Horticulturae 1981, 122, 99-105. DOI:

- Nonnecke I. L. Vegetable Production. Avi, New York, 1989, p.657.

- Wurr D. C. E.. Perdiction of the time of maturity in cauliflower. Acta Horticulturae1990, 267, 387-394. DOI:

- Hopkins W.G. Introduction To Plant Physiology. Second Ed. 1999,John Wiley & Sons, IMC. New York, 310-365.

- Leshem, Y. and S. Steiner .Effect of gibberellic acid and cold treatment on flower differentiation and stem elongation of cauliflower (Brasica oleracea var. botrytis). Israel Journal of Agricultural Research 1968, 18, 133-134.

- Wurr D. C. E. The influence of cold treatments on the uniformity of cauliflower curd initiation and maturity. Acta Horticulturae 1981, 122, 107-113. DOI:

- Metzger J. D. and J. A. D. Zeevaart . Effect of photoperiod on levels of endogenous gibberellins in spinach as measured by combined gas chromatography. Selecting ion current monitoring. Plant Physiol. 1980, 66, 844-846. DOI:

- Zeevaart J. A. D. , R. A. Creelman. Metabolism and physiology of abscissic acid. Annal. Rev. of plant Molecular Biology 1988, 39, 439-433. DOI:

- Pollard C. J.. A survey of the sequence of some effects of gibberellic acid in the metabolism of ceral grains. Plant Physiology 1969, 44,1227-1232. DOI:

- Wien, H. C. The Physiology of Vegtable Crops. CABI Publisheing. 1997, 511-553.

- Mozer T. J.). Control of protein synthesis in barley alurone layers by the plant hormones gibberellic acid acid and abscissic acid. Cell.1980, 20, 379-485. DOI:

- Booij R.Effects of gibberellic acids on time of maturity and on yield and on quality of cauliflower. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science. 1990, 38, 641-651. DOI:

- Garcia-Martinez, J. L., , N. Ben-Shalomand L. Rappaport . Gibberellin-induce ethylene production and its effect on cowpea epicotyls elongation. Plant Growth Regulator 1984,2, 209-216. DOI:

- Sieburth L. E. . Auxin is required for leaf vein pattern in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol.1999 27- Milborn, A. J. Water Flow In Plants. PERGAMON PRESS 1981, Pp191.

- Goodwin T. W. and E. I. Mercer, 1985, Introduction To Plant Biochemistry. Second Ed. PERGAMON PRESS..

- Avsain-Kretchmer O., J. C. Cheng, L. Chen, E. Moctezuma and Z. Ro-Sung. Indole acetic acid distribution pattern during Arabidopsis leaf antogeny. Plant Physiol. 2002, 130, 199-209. 30- Esau K. Vascular differentiation in plants. Holt, .1965 Rinehart and Wintson , Inc. N.Y. DOI:

- West M. A. L. and J. J. Hadara. Embryogenesis in higher plants: An overview. Plant Cell 1993 1361-1971, 1993. DOI:

- Aloni R. The induction of vascular tissues by auxin and cytokinin.. in P. J. Daves Ed( 2) Hormones: Phsiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ed. 2 Kluwer Acad. Pub. Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 1995. 531-546. DOI:



How to Cite

Improving the Production of Well Irrigated Cauliflower (Brassica OleraceaL. Var. Botrytis,Cv. Snowball Y. Imp) by Foliar Spraying of some Growth Regulators. (2008). Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani - Part A, 12(1), 29-49.