Increased Iron Overload and Glycated Hemoglobin in Diabetes Mellitus-П Patients in Sulaimani city


  • Sirwan Mustafa Mohammed College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Author



Iron overload, Glycated Hemoglobin(HbA1c), Diabetes mellitus-П


The purpose of the current study was to assess the correlation between the iron overload and increased glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among some diabetic patients in Sulaimani outpatient clinics. The studied samples included 60 randomly selected patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus-п, having mean age of 51 years. Oppositely, 20 nondiabetic persons (having normal blood glucose and HbA1c within the normal range (2- 6%) with mean age of (46) years; were enrolled as a control group. Serum ferritin (SF) was used for measuring iron storage status, correspondingly, blood glucose and mean values of glycemia, measured as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) are measured. The results of the current study revealed highly significant increasing of iron storage (P-value 0.001) and percentage of glycated hemoglobin (p 0.05) among the diabetic patients. Further studies with larger samples should be conducted to examine the possible role of iron overload in the emergence of diabetes.


- S. Swaminathan and et al., "The Role of Iron in Diabetes and Its Complications" Diabetes Care; 30:1926–33, (2007). DOI:

- S.V. Shah, and V.A. Fonseca, "Iron and Diabetes Revisited". Diabetes Care; 34:1676–77, (2011). DOI:

- J.P. Greer and et al., "Wintrobe’s clinical hematology". 12th eddion. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN-13: 978-0-7817-6507-7.P:857-61, (2009).

- N.G. Forouhi and et al., "Elevated serum ferritin levels predict new-onset type 2 diabetes: results from the EPIC-Norfolk prospective study". Diabetologia.; 50:949– 956, (2007). DOI:

- M. Manuel, G.J.Antonio and A.F Remacha, "Disorders of iron metabolism. Part II: iron deficiency and iron overload". J Clin Pathol; 64:287-296, (2011). DOI:

- S. Liang and et al., "Ferritin Concentrations, Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 93: 4690–96, (2008). DOI:

- S. Smotra, Tandon V.R. and Sharma S., "Ferritin and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus". Review Article. JK Science;9 (4):164-66, (2007).

- M.D. Johnson, "Human Biology Concepts and Current Issues".6th edition, Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 10: 0-321-70167-4. P300-301, (2012).

- J.M. Fernández-Real, López-Bermejo A, Ricart W., "Cross-talk between iron metabolism and diabetes". Diabetes; 51:2348–2354, (2002). DOI:

- S.N. Rajpathak and et al., "Biomarkers of body iron stores and risk of developing type 2 diabetes". Diabetes Obes Metab; 11(5):472-9, (2009). DOI:

- H. Jingyu and et al., "Iron Overload and Diabetes Risk: A Shift From Glucoseto Fatty Acid Oxidation and Increased Hepatic Glucose Production in a Mouse Model of Hereditary Hemochromatosis". Diabetes; 60:80-86, (2011) DOI:

- X. Chen, Scholl O.T, and Stein TP., "Association of Elevated Serum Ferritin Levels and the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnant Women". Diabetes Care; 29:1077–1082, (2006). DOI:

- M. Yukiko and et al., "Iron restriction improves type 2 diabetes mellitus in Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima fatty rats". Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; 298: 1140–49, (2010). DOI:

- R.C. Cooksey, Jones D, Gabrielsen S, et al. "Dietary iron restriction or iron chelation protects from diabetes and loss of beta-cell function in the obese (ob/ob lep-/-) mouse". Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab; 298:1236-1243, (2010). DOI:

- R. Jiang, Manson JE, Meigs JB et al., "Body iron stores in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in apparently healthy women". JAMA;291:711–717, (2004). DOI:

- J.S. Skyler., "Atlas of Diabetes",4th edition. Springer LLC. ISBN 978-1-4614- 1027-0, PP: 149-51, (2012).

- S. Nitin., "HbA1c and factors other than diabetes mellitus affecting it". Singapore Med J; 51(8): 616-20, (2010).

- K. S. Jeevan, Mungli P and Mohammad S.I., "Relationship between free iron and glycated hemoglobin in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes patients associated with complications". Indian journal of clin biochem;23:67-70, (2008). DOI:

- "European Reference laboratory for Glycohaemoglobin".Manufacturer Check up Certification of NycoCard® HbA1c, (1998).

- B.D. Sacks and et al. "Guidlines and Recommendations for Laboratory Analysis in the Diagnosis and Management of Diabetes Mellitus".Clin Chem;57(6):e1-e47, (2011). DOI:



How to Cite

Increased Iron Overload and Glycated Hemoglobin in Diabetes Mellitus-П Patients in Sulaimani city. (2012). Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani - Part A, 15(1), 37-42.