Landslide Hazard of Rock Slopes Around Shaqlawa City, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq, with Modified Classification of Hazards on Roads and proposing remedial measurements


  • Saad Numan Al-Saadi College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq. Author
  • Luay Dawood Yousif Senior Chief Geologist, Iraq Geological Survey (GEOSURV), Baghdad, Iraq. Author



Landslides, Shaqlawa area, Rock slopes, Hazard, Safin, Gird Sur, Shiranish


The results of rock slopes analyses around Shaqlawa area showed that Landslide Possibility Index (LPI) values range between Low (LPI) for rock slopes of Tanjero, Kolosh and (marl and siltstone) of Gercus Formations, Moderate (LPI) for rock slopes of Shiranish, Gercus (sandstone and dolomitic limestone) and Pila Spi Formations, and High (LPI) for rock slopes of the dolomitic limestone of Pila Spi Formation at the gorge north of Shaqlawa city (at the west side of Shaqlawa - Harir main road). Two landslide hazard maps have been prepared for Shaqlawa area:  A- The first Hazard map (based on LPI values) shows three hazard areas; (1) Area of Low Hazards (for Tanjero and Kolosh Formations). (2) Areas of Moderate Hazards (for Shiranish, Gercus and Pila Spi Formations) and (3) Area of High Hazard (for the dolomitic limestone beds of Pila Spi Formation) west of Shaqlawa - Harir main road.  B- The second Hazard map (based on the effect of landslide on the roads), also shows three hazard areas but different from the first map. It shows; (1) Area of Very Low Hazard (it includes slopes of Tanjero, Kolosh and Gercus Formations) because of the wide distance between the failing slopes and the road, (2) Area of Moderate Hazard (in the slopes of Shiranish Formation) because of closeness from the road and poor protection works, and (3) Area of High Hazard (at Pila Spi dolomitic limestone slopes at the west side of Shaqlawa-Harir main road) due to its high slope angle and height, and closeness to the road in addition to poor protection works.  A modification on the classification of landslide hazard on roads is suggested, and some measures of landslides treatment are suggested, for slope stabilization and road protection.


-Ali M.H., Rushdy B. and Al Jassar S. H., (1991) Engineering Geology, University of Mosul, Ministry of High Education and Scientific Research 576 p (In Arabic)

-Al-Kadhimi J. M. A, Sissakian, V. K., Sattar, A. F., and Deikran, D.B., (1996) Tectonic Map of Iraq. 2nded. Scale 1:1000 000, GEOSURV, Iraq.

-Al-Obaidy L. D., (2005) Engineering geological study of rock slope stability for Shiranish, Kolosh, Gercus and Pila Spi formations around Shaqlawa area NE of Iraq. Unpublished MSc. Thesis, College of Science, University of Baghdad, (In Arabic), 127 p.

-Al- Rawi Y.T., (1980) Petrology and Sedimentology of Gercus Red Beds Formation NE of Iraq. Iraqi Jour. Geo. Soc. Vol. 21, pp: 132 - 188.

-Al- Sheikh Z. D., Saleh S. A. and Abdo H. F., (1975) Contribution to the Geology of Shaqlawa-Harir Area. Jour. Geol. Soc. Iraq, Special Issue, pp: 55-67.

-Barahim, A.A., (2004) Slope stability of Hajja-Amran road in Yemen, and derivation of toppling equations for blocks having triangular Cross-Section, PhD. Thesis, College of Science, University of Baghdad (in Arabic), 152 p.

-Barison, G. and Conteduca J., (1998) Rock Slopes stability and road risk evaluation in an Alpine Valley, Proceedings, 8th International Congress of IAEG Vancouver, Canada, Balkema, Rotterdam, V. 2, pp: 1179 –1185.

-Bejerman N. J., (1994) Landslide possibility index system. Proceedings 7thInt. IAEG Cong., Balkema, Rotterdam, III: pp: 1303-1306.

-Bejerman N.J., (1998) Evaluation of Landslide susceptibility along state Road 5,Cordoba, Argentina Proceedings,8th inter. Cong. of IAEG Vancouver, Canada, Balkema, Rotterdam, V. 2, pp:1175-1178.

-Bunce, C. M., Cruden, D. M., and Morgenstern, N. R., (1997) Assessment of the hazard from rockfall on a highway, Can. Geotech. J., 34, 344–356. DOI:

-Erener A. and Üzgün D., (2008) Analyses of Hazard Mapping Methods: Regression Models versus Weight Rating. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XXXVII, Part B8. Beijing.

-Fooks, P.G and Sweeny, M., (1976) Stabilization and control of local rock falls and degrading of slopes, Quar. Jour. Eng. Geo. V.9, pp: 37-55. DOI:

-GÀlos M., (1997) Rock Slopes as Engineering Constructions. Periodical Polytechnica Ser. Civ. Eng. Vol. 43, No.2, PP. 153–161,(1999)

-Hoek E. and Bray J. W., (1981) Rock Slope Engineering. Institute of Mining and Metallurgy London.358P. DOI:

-Hungr O, Evans S. G., and Hazzard J., (1999) Magnitude and frequency of rock fall and rockslides along the main transportation corridors of southwestern British Columbia, Can. Geotech. J., 36, 224-238. DOI:

-I.M.O., (1990) Iraqi Climatological Atlas for the period (1960-1990). Ministry of Transportation and communication, Republic of Iraq, (In Arabic).

-Patrick A. and Alvarez E. M., (2006) Using GIS data and mapping techniques to delineate areas most prone to hazardous rock fall in the state of Colorado. University of Texas at San Antonio, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences.

-Ritchie, A.M. (1963) The Evaluation of Rock Fall and its control. Highway Record, vol. 17, pp: 13 – 28

-Sissakian, V.K. and Youkhana, R.Y., (1979) Report on Regional Geological Mapping of Arbil– Shaqlawa – Quaisinjag – Raidar area, GEOSURV, Unpub. Int. Rep. no 975.

-Tamar-Agha, M. Y., (2012), (Personal Communication).



How to Cite

Landslide Hazard of Rock Slopes Around Shaqlawa City, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq, with Modified Classification of Hazards on Roads and proposing remedial measurements. (2013). Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani - Part A, 15(3), 1-21.